History of Earth 1v2w (No Animation)

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Human civilization has existed for a very short time on Earth. If we take the existence of Earth as equivalent to one year in time. Then human civilisation only appears on the last second of the last hour of the last day in the Earth’s year. Human has been fighting each other since the beginning of history. In the last century, we had two World Wars, when millions were killed. But I am the luck generation that miraculously never experienced wars, although the drums of wars are never too far away. We have arsenals of weapons that could destroy the world many times over. In my life time, I have also seen many of our children, marrying people of different races too. Our greatest enemy is ourselves. If we can survive this, there is the whole universe to explore. Finally, just remind ourselves that the longest Ice Age on Earth lasted for well over 1 billion years long and our civilisation is only 10,000 years old. 16 Jan 2022.

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Presentation Transcript

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An early Earth in formation First created 21.12.2021. Version 1.0 18 Jan 2022. Daperro . London . History of Earth A Living Planet

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Earth’s Timeline (4560 Ma) The formation of the early Earth took place during the Hadean period between 4,533 and 3,920 million years ago.

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Moon Formation (4500 Ma) Appearance of the early Earth. Earth-Moon Formation. Around 4.5 billion years ago, another Mars-size planet collided with Earth. As a result, the axis of the Earth was tilted and the collision created the Moon.

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Inclined Earth (4500 Ma) After collision, the Earth’s rotational axis inclined. This inclination gives us the different seasons. Earth is the only planet in the Solar System to have seasons. Although Uranus also has a tilted axis at 90 degree, with the polar region facing the Sun. As a result, it does not have seasons like the Earth.

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The seasons (1565) according to Pieter Bruegel (1524-1569), Flemish. The Seasons (4500 Ma) Winter Spring Autumn Summer

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The Magma Ocean Earth (4500+ Ma) When the Earth was formed, it was very hot. The Earth was covered by a Magma Oceans. It was during this time the Earth’s core was formed. The Magma Ocean may have lasted for millions to tens of years long.

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The First Rain (4500-3800 Ma) Water is common in Solar System. It was detected even in Mercury, the closest planet to the sun. It was also found on the Moon, as water ice. Water vapour was present in the atmosphere in the beginning of the early hot Earth, when it was formed about 4.56 billion year ago. By 4.5-3.8 billion years ago, Earth had cool down enough for the first rain to fall.

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Earth the Ocean Planet (3800 Ma) After the first rain of 3.8 billion years ago, the entire Earth was covered by an ocean.

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First Life (3800 Ma) Model of a Protocell, with a stable semi-permeable membrane. Genetics material can passed into cell for reproduction.

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E arliest Oxygen 3500 Ma Photosynthesis began about 2.8b years ago. But small quantity of oxygen was first appeared before photosynthesis. The early oxygen was produced by the a unicellular organism called prokaryote, similar to bacteria. It was the arrival of photosynthesis that boosted the later level of oxygen in the atmosphere.

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Land mass appeared due to Earth interior cooling, before the mantle was too soft and could not support plateaus and mountains. The first Archean continent is called Ur. We have no idea about its shape or what it looked like. We know it was probably no bigger than Australia today. Recent study suggested, there maybe other older Archean continent called Vaalbara around, but it was very small. It is more like the size of Tasmania. Later during 1.3-1.07b years ago, Ur joined with other land masses to form the supercontinent of Rodina. (The photo above is a modern day photo.) First Continent ( 3100 Ma)

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Plant Cell and Photosynthesis (2800 Ma) The rise in oxygen in world’s atmosphere began about 2500 Ma. The oxygen level shot up very quickly and made up 1% of the atmosphere by c2250 Ma. Photosynthesis had clearly arrived.

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Cells with Nucleus (2600 Ma) It took quite a long time, about 2 billion years before animal cell with nucleus appeared. By this time the Earth was in its early middle age.

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First Supercontinent Kenorland ( 2400 Ma) Around 2.4 billion year ago, Earth’s mantle began to cool and hardened. The first large supercontinent Kenorland began to form. (source – Science Examiner on University of Oregon research).

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Huronian Glaciation ( 2400-2100 Ma) Some scientists speculated the formation of the first continent had disturbed the Earth’s radiative balance , leading to the first snowfall Earth between 2.4-2.2 billion years ago. Others suggested that it was the oxygen created by life that led to global glaciation. After about 1.7 billion years since the creation of the Earth or 2.4 billion years ago , the Earth was cold enough for local glaciation to occur. This global glaciation is known as the Huronian Glaciation . The glaciation lasted for some 300 million years.

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Oxygen and Algae (2600 Ma) Algae was first evolved c2.7 billion year ago and soon after atmosphere oxygen became an significant part of Earth’s atmosphere by 2 billion year ago. Crude oil and natural gas were also derived from these organisms. Today some 50% of all oxygen production is still depended on algae.

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Multicellular Life (2100-800 Ma) T here no simple answer to the first multicellular organism. It dependent on what the organism is concerned.

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Continental Drift Land masses (continents) on the surface of the Earth are moved by undercurrent within the mantle and also pushed by Sea-floor spreading. We called this phenomena Continental Drift.

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Making Mountains & Volcanos

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Volcanism (650m yrs ) Volcanos are created by moving continents over the sea-floor. Note from the above diagram, the correlation between volcanicity and plate margins. Some suggested that volcanism was the cause of the 650m Ice Ages.

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The later Global Glaciation - Snowball Earth (650m yrs ) The global glaciation may have paved the way to the Cambrian explosion of life that followed. This time global glaciation may have reached close to the equator. Once glaciation had taken place, the high reflectivity of ice at 50 to 80% can prolong or strengthen further glaciation.

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Hydrothermal Vent Hydrothermal vents under the oceans, provided an alternative environment for life. Vents were formed by the degassing of the Earth’s interior magma. Vents were not affected by the climate changes on the surface. Life here was not affect Ice Ages.

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As the Earth’s interior cooled, the mantle became strong enough to support the lighter material that form the land masses. Continents appeared. In 500m years ago, before the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea, the seas on the edges of lands were full of lives. From Rodinia to Gondwana Land (1130-200 Ma)

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Cambrian Explosion (550-500 Ma) In around 540 Ma, there was a evolutionary explosive growth of many forms of marine life, with diversity of forms. Eyes were evolved. This coincided with global warming and rising sea level. New groups were evolved and replaced by yet new comers.

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Plate Tectonics and Sea Floor Spreading The Earth’s surface is made up of tectonic plates. These move as a single unit. The adjacent plates are pushed in different directions by mid-ocean ridges, which creating more new ocean floors and also move continents.

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Plant Apart from plants and animals, there are three groups of living organisms which are outside of the two groups. These are Monerans (Bacteria & Blue algae), Protists (Amoebas, Diatoms & Eglenas and Fungi (Slime moulds & True fungi).

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Invertebrate (c 570 m) The majority of animal species are invertebrates. One estimate puts the 97% species are invertebrates. There are some invertebrates 1.25 million described (potentially tens of millions), compared to 60,000 vertebrates described. The sea lily is thought to be the “missing link” between vertebrates and invertebrates, a split that occurred around 570m years ago.

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Evolution of Fishes (530m) Fossil of a jawed fishes had thick, heavy scales. Dapedius from the lower Jurassic beds of Doset England. Bony fish Cartilaginous fish

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Photosynthesis by unicellular organisms were on land some 1200 million years ago. Plants on land occurs much later at about 470 million years ago. Bald (or Swamp) Cypress can be tracked back to some 153 million years ago. Plant on Land (470 m)

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Amphibians (360 m) Three are 3 families of amphibians – Frog, Newts & salamanders and a much smaller group of Caecilians The Frog is by far the biggest family. The Salamanders and Newts. The have tails. A small family of Caecilians. An early 4-legged amphibian Balenerpeton woodi . Axolotl, a salamander from Mexico retain their gills on land.

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Reptiles (350 m) Once the dinosaurs were a major group of reptiles.

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Marine & Flying Reptiles (200-150 m) The above pictures show others animals, like Coelacanth, a fish lived that lived side by side with the huge marine reptiles. The archaeopteryx was a reptile with feather and not (yet) a bird. The earliest birds were only about 66.7 million years ago. Reptiles today is made up of 5 main groups Crocodile, Tortoise, Snake, Tutara (only found in New Zealand today) and Iguana. However, reptiles had dominated life on Earth for nearly 250m years. All the huge reptiles are now extinct, including the dinosaurs on land and the reptiles of the air and the seas.

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Meteor Impact Event (66 m) An asteroid hit Earth 66 million years ago. It sparked of two years of darkness on Earth that wiped out the dinosaurs. A recent study concluded. During this period 75% of species were killed. The darkness lasted for 700 days. It would have then taken 40 years for the ecosystem to be restored to normal. The asteroid was estimated to be 7.5 mile wide, It was travel at 27,000 miles per hour, when it slammed into what now the Gulf of Mexico, leaving the Chicxulub crater. This ended the reign of the dinosaurs. Mammals being warm blooded survived the darkness and took over from the reptiles.

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Mass Extinction Events Mass extinctions happened five times on Earth. Human activities maybe the reason that it is happening now.

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Birds (200-150 m) Birds are the decedents of the dinosaurs. Unlike the dinosaurs they are hot blooded . Not all bird can fly, the ostriches is an example. They all have feathers, toothless beaked jaws. There are about 10,000 different types of birds in the world today. Evolution of birds from reptiles .

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Mammals (66m) Mammals and Reptiles evolved into separate branches, more or less the same time (about 66 million years ago), much earlier than birds. All mammals are warm-blooded. Warm-blooded animal regulate their body temperature, which helps them to survive in harsh environments.

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Human Evolution (2m) Modern humans originated in Africa within the past 200,000 years and evolved from their most likely recent common ancestor, Homo erectus, which means ‘upright man’ in Latin. Homo erectus is an extinct species of human that lived between 1.9 million and 135,000 years ago .

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Human Global Migrations (65 k) Modern humans left Africa about 65,000 years ago and arriving in China about 50,000. Finally arriving South America in 15,000 years ago

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Hunter Gatherers Up until the beginning of agriculture, prehistoric human were hunter gatherers. They hunted for animal for meat and gathered fruits, seeds, nuts, grains and herbs as food. Hunter Gatherer communities still exist today, in the more remote parts of the world, like the Amazon jungle of South America. An imaginary view of a hunter gatherer’s camp

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Prehistoric Arts Prehistoric art objects and paintings were in many parts of the world. It reflected our desires to communicate with others.

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Few inventions have had as profound an effect as the development of agriculture. It altered both animals and crop to be maximized for human consumption. Societies have subsequently developed across the globe. Agriculture and Farming (c10,000 yr ) Agriculture made it possible for surplus food to be stored , thus created wealth . As more people are fed, more roles were developed leading to more complex societies, with new specialized roles e.g. artists, leaders, priests, soldiers etc.

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Rise of civilisation in the near East (7100-2700 BC) An earlier city of the Sumerian Civillation in Mesopotamia. It has a population of between 40,000 and 80,000. At it peak around 2800 BC, it was the largest city in the world .

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Human has lived on Earth for only a very very small fraction of time, compare to the existence of planet Earth. We have made great changes to the Earth with our cities, roads, farms etc. We have also created knowledge. Not only do we know about our Sun and our Solar System, but we also have knowledge about the our universe. We maybe not be the only conscious beings in this universe, but without love and compassion humanity cannot survive into the distance future. Rise of Science (17 th Century) Newton (1643-1727). Curie (1867-1934). Darwin (1809-1882). Einstein (1879-1955). Marie Curie in her laboratory 1905.

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Industrial Revolution (18-19 th C) Between 1760 to 1820-40, the Industrial Revolution transformed the manufacturing processes, by the use of machines, chemical manufacturing and use of steam & water power. (Above) a modern assembly production line.

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Music – The Ashokan Farewell, Ungar-Mason A view of the center of our galaxy (The Milky way). The End

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History of Wars