Caribbean South America

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Chapter 8 – Caribbean South America Section Notes Physical Geography Colombia Venezuela and the Guianas Video Impact of the Orinoco River Images Venezuela’s Canaima National Park Focus on Culture: The Feast of Corpus Christi Caracas, Venezuela Latitude and Longitude Quick Facts Chapter 8 Visual Summary Maps Caribbean South America: Political Caribbean South America: Physical Venezuela’s Major Resources World: Political Caribbean South America Volcanoes of Colombia World Almanac World’s Top Oil Exporters

Physical Geography:

Physical Geography The Big Idea Caribbean South America is a region with diverse physical features, wildlife, climates, and resources. Main Ideas Caribbean South America has a wide variety of physical features and wildlife. The region’s location and elevation both affect its climate and vegetation. Caribbean South America is rich in resources, such as farmland, oil, timber, and rivers for hydroelectric power.

Main Idea 1: Caribbean South America has a wide variety of physical features and wildlife.:

Main Idea 1: Caribbean South America has a wide variety of physical features and wildlife. The Guiana Highlands , the highest point in Venezuela, stretch into Guyana and Suriname. Sandstone layers resisted erosion to create flat-topped formations that rise 3,000–6,000 feet above the surrounding plains. Mountains The Andes are the highest point in the region. They reach 18,000 feet on Colombia’s western side. The Andes form a cordillera , or a mountain system made up of roughly parallel ranges. Some peaks are active volcanoes. Highlands

Plains, Rivers, and Wildlife:

Plains, Rivers, and Wildlife The plains between the highlands and the Andes make up the Llanos . At a low elevation the Llanos is mostly grassland that floods easily. The Orinoco is the longest river, flowing for 1,600 miles. The Cauca and the Magdalena are two other important rivers that drain the Andean region. Hundreds of birds, crocodiles, and meat-eating fish called piranhas live in or around the Orinoco River. Colombia has one of the highest concentrations of plant and animal species in the world.

Main Idea 2: The region’s location and elevation both affect its climate and vegetation.:

Main Idea 2: The region’s location and elevation both affect its climate and vegetation. Temperature Located near the equator, the region is warm year-round. Temperatures vary with elevation. In the Andes, temperatures drop by four degrees Fahrenheit every 1000 feet. Llanos This region has a tropical savanna climate. Both wet and dry seasons provide favorable conditions for grasslands. Rain Forests These forests thrive in humid tropical climate of southern Colombia. They are part of the Amazon Basin. Rain falls throughout the year. The trees’ canopies block the sunlight.

Main Idea 3: Caribbean South America is rich in resources, such as farmland, oil, timber, and rivers for hydroelectric power.:

Main Idea 3: Caribbean South America is rich in resources, such as farmland, oil, timber, and rivers for hydroelectric power. Rich soil and moderate climate are good for agriculture. Crops: rice, coffee, bananas, and sugarcane Resources: oil, iron ore, and coal Forests provide timber. Seas provide fish and shrimp. Rivers are used to generate hydroelectric power.

Colombia:

Colombia The Big Idea Spanish conquest, valuable resources, and civil war have shaped the history, culture, and economy of Colombia. Main Ideas Native cultures, Spanish conquest, and independence shaped Colombia’s history. In Colombia today, the benefits of a rich culture and many natural resources contrast with the effects of a long period of civil war.

Main Idea 1: Native cultures, Spanish conquest, and independence shaped Colombia’s history.:

Main Idea 1: Native cultures, Spanish conquest, and independence shaped Colombia’s history. Giant mounds of earth, mysterious statues, and tombs mark the history of the people of Colombia. The people who created these lived more than 1,500 years ago. Colombia’s history includes the story of the Chibcha, the Spanish conquest, and independence.

History:

1500: Spain conquered the Chibcha and established a colony and cities along the Caribbean coast. The colonial city Cartagena was a major naval base and commercial port in the Spanish empire. 1600s: Spanish set up large estates and forced Indians and enslaved Africans to work the land. The Chibcha The legend of El Dorado, the Golden One, was inspired by the Chibcha. They covered new rulers in gold dust and threw gold and emeralds into a lake as the new ruler washed. They practiced pottery making, weaving, and metal working. Spanish Conquest History

Independence:

Independence Late 1790s: The struggle for independence created the republic of Gran Colombia, which included Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. 1830: The republic dissolved. Colombia and Panama established New Grenada. One group wanted the Roman Catholic Church to participate in government and education. Another group did not. Conflicts killed thousands of people in the 1800s and 1900s. Rugged geography also divided the people into two different regions with separate economies and identities.

Main Idea 2: In Colombia today, the benefits of a rich culture and many natural resources contrast with the effects of a long period of civil war.:

Main Idea 2: In Colombia today, the benefits of a rich culture and many natural resources contrast with the effects of a long period of civil war. Colombia is the most populous South American country in this region. Second most populous overall. Its capital, Bogotá , is located high in the eastern Andes. Colombia is rich in culture and resources. Forty years of civil war has harmed the economy.

People and Culture:

Traditional African songs and dances on the Caribbean coast; South American Indian music in Andes Sports: soccer and a Chibcha ring-toss game, tejo Mostly Spanish speaking and Roman Catholic Ethnic groups: 58 percent mestizo; also Spanish, African, and Indian descent People Most Colombians farm in fertile valleys and river basins. Other Colombians ranch cattle in the Llanos. Few people live in the rain forests. Geography divides the country into separate cultural and physical regions. Culture People and Culture

Colombia Today:

Economy Colombia’s economy relies on several valuable resources. Major farming exports: coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, and flowers. Natural resources: oil, iron ore, gold, coal, and emeralds Civil War Many different groups have waged war with each other. Past 40 years: Armed militants have controlled large areas of Colombia. Guerillas , or members of an irregular military force Want to overthrow government Forced farmers off land Grow illegal coca plant to make cocaine Government passed new laws and receives U.S. aid to combat the guerillas. Colombia Today

Venezuela and the Guianas:

Venezuela and the Guianas The Big Idea European settlement, immigration, and natural resources have greatly influenced the culture and economy of Venezuela and the Guianas. Main Ideas Spanish settlement shaped the history and culture of Venezuela. Oil production plays a large role in Venezuela’s economy and government today. The Guianas have diverse cultures and plentiful resources.

Main Idea 1: Spanish settlement shaped the history and culture of Venezuela.:

Main Idea 1: Spanish settlement shaped the history and culture of Venezuela. Small South American Indian tribes originally lived in Venezuela. Spain conquered Venezuela in the early 1500s. Venezuela won independence in the early 1800s. Three centuries of Spanish rule influenced the country’s history and culture.

History of Venezuela:

Spanish Settlement Spain forced native Indians to search for gold and pearls, but found little. Spain then forced Indians to farm indigo. Many Indians died as a result. Spain replaced the Indians with enslaved Africans. Some slaves escaped, settling in remote areas. Independence Simon Bolívar led revolt against Spain in Venezuela and throughout the region. 1830: Venezuela became officially independent. 1800s: Military dictatorships and civil wars 1900s: Oil was discovered, but the country’s leaders kept wealth for themselves. History of Venezuela

People and Culture:

Venezuela’s national dance, the joropo , is a lively foot-stomping couples’ dance. Rodeos are popular. Sports: baseball and soccer People Most people are mestizos. European descendents live in large cities. African descendents live along the coast. Most are Spanish-speaking Roman Catholic. Indians make up 2 percent, but speak 25 different native languages and follow religious practices of their ancestors. Culture People and Culture

Main Idea 2: Oil production plays a large role in Venezuela’s economy and government today.:

Main Idea 2: Oil production plays a large role in Venezuela’s economy and government today. Northern Venezuela has small and large farms. Llaneros , or Venezuelan cowboys, herd cattle on ranches in the Llanos region. 1960s: Oil production made a few wealthy; the majority of the rest lived in poverty in cities or shacks on the outskirts. Immigrants arrived attracted by oil wealth. 1980s: The price of oil dropped. People suffered economically. The price of oil recovered in 1990s. Venezuela joined Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) that tries to keep oil prices stable.

Natural Resources:

Natural Resources The Orinoco River basin and Lake Maracaibo are rich in oil. Guiana Highlands are rich in iron ore, gold and other minerals. Dams along the Orinoco River produce hydroelectricity. Caracas , the capital, is a large city with a modern subway system, expressways, and tall buildings. Caracas is surrounded by slums.

Venezuela’s Government:

Venezuela’s Government 1959: First president elected. 2002: President Hugo Chavez started to distribute the country’s oil income equally among all Venezuelans. In protest, millions of people joined a strike —a group of workers stopping work until their demands are met. The strike hurt the economy. People called for a referendum , or recall vote, to decide whether Chavez would remain in office. 2004: Chavez won 58 percent of the vote and adopted new policies to end poverty, illiteracy, and hunger.

Main Idea 3: The Guianas have diverse cultures and plentiful resources.:

Main Idea 3: The Guianas have diverse cultures and plentiful resources. The economy and resources are similar to Guyana. The capital, Paramaribo, is home to half the population. The population includes South Asians, Africans, Chinese, Indonesians, and Creoles. Guyana One-third of the people lives in the capital, Georgetown. Farmers grow rice and sugar on coastal plains. Half of the people are descendents of immigrants from India. One-third of the people are of African descent. Suriname A territory of France with 190,000 people who live mainly in coastal areas. Two-thirds are of African descent. Others are of European, Asian, and South American Indian descent. French Guiana

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