lesson 3

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Lesson 3 Scientific Breakthroughs


Before you start Ex1. Do you know the major discoveries of the scientists in the pictures?


Albert Einstein Albert Einstein’s most important discovery is the creation of his famous Theory of Relativity. His famous equation (energy equals mass times the speed of light squared) is a formula to explain that a great amount of energy could come from a small piece of matter.


beautiful space Hubble space telescope 哈勃空间望远镜是人类第一座太空望远镜,总长度超过13米,质量为11吨多,运行在地球大气层外缘离地面约600公里的轨道上。它大约每100分钟环绕地球一周。哈勃望远镜是由美国国家航空航天局和欧洲航天局合作,于1990年发射入轨的。哈勃望远镜是以天文学家爱德文·哈勃的名字命名的。按计划,它将在2009年被詹姆斯韦布太空望远镜所取代。哈勃望远镜的角分辨率达到小于 0.1秒,每天可以获取3到5G字节的数据。


John William Mauchly (1907.8.30 – 1980.1.8) J. Presper Eckert John William Mauchly was an American physicist who, along with his student J. Presper Eckert designed ENIAC, the first commercial computer made in the United States. 设计计算机的初衷是用来计算炮弹及火箭、导弹的弹道,它最终在原子弹的研制中发挥了极大的作用。


1.The equation 2.Penicillin 3.The first computer 4.Other galaxies Ex2.Try to match the discoveries with how they were discovered? a) Scientists worked together as a team b) There was a lucky accident c) A scientist did research for many years d) A scientist was inspired


Read to learn Exs 3. Listen and read the text and check your guesses from Exs2.


Exs 4: Are these statements true or false according to the text or is there no information? 1.Orville Wright made the first and longest flight on 17 December, 1903. L.35 2. A bicycle-repair company made the money used in the Wright brother’s flying experiments. L.27 Reading T F


3. Einstein was at work when he thought of the equation       L.2 4. Einstein participated in the programme that developed the nuclear bomb. L.6 5.Einstein observed changes in time, size and mass. L.11 F T F


6. Hubble studied the universe for over twenty years. 7. Hubble discovered that our galaxy is bigger than we thought it was. L.25 8. Fleming had been studying bacteria in his laboratory when the discovery happened. L.32 9. There was a blue mould around the bacteria in the dish. L.35 10. Fleming developed the process for making penicillin. L.42 NI T T F T


11. The first computer project failed to meet its original goal. L.9 12. The first computer was extremely difficult to program. T NI


Vocabulary: Compound Words Exs 5. Match the categories (a-e) with the examples from the text (1-5) . Then add examples of your own. compound n. 1. one-year-old; world-famous; (n.+n.) far-reaching b) compound v. 2. breakthrough; outcome c) compound adj. 3. mass-produce; double-chest d) compound n. 4. flying machine; (adj.+n.) nuclear bomb e) compound n. 5. CD player; jet engine (v.+prep.)