HUBBLE LEGACY

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Slide1: 

Glenn Schneider Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (NICMOS/IDT) High Contrast Imaging and The Disk/Planet Connection

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Asymmetries (radial & azimuthal): • May implicate low-mass perturbers (planets) from: Rings, Central Holes, Gaps, Clumps, Arcs, Arclets • Help Elucidate the scattering & physical properties of the grains. Direct (Scattered Light) Imaging of Dusty Debris

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The HUBBLE Legacy Breaking the Low Contrast Paradigm

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• Diffraction Limited Imaging in Optical/Near-IR •> 98% Strehl Ratios @ all ls • Highly STABLE PSF • Coronagraphy: NICMOS STIS, ACS NIR High Dynamic Range Sampling NICMOS/MA: Dmag=19.4 (6 x 4m) TODAY HST Provides a Unique Venue for High Contrast Imaging

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T e r r e s t r i a l p l a n e t s f o r m C l e a r i n g o f i n n e r s o l a r s y s t e m , f o r m a t i o n o f a K u i p e r c o m e t a r y b e l t ? 1 0 8 y r s 1 0 9 y r s E r a o f h e a v y b o m b a r m e n t b y c o m e t s C u r r e n t a g e o f t h e S u n : 5 x 1 0 9 y r s . a P e r s e i S u n H y a d e s T u c a n a e A s s o c P l e i a d e s Primary Dust (≤ m m) Secondary Dust (≥ Locked to Gas Collisional erosion Clearing Timescales: P-R drag few 10 Rad. Pressure: ~ 10 F r o m : R . W e b b C o l l a p s i n g p r o t o s t a r f o r m s p r o t o - p l a n e t a r y d i s k 1 0 6 y r s T a u r u s , O p h i u c h u s s t a r f o r m i n g r e g i o n s m m) 6 4 R o c k y c o r e s o f g i a n t p l a n e t s f o r m a c c r e t e g a s e o u s a t m o s p h e r e s T W H y d r a e r y s 1 0 7 A s s o c G i a n t p l a n e t s Planet-Building Timeline

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Scientific Areas of Investigation Enabled With Today’s Capabilities on HST via PSF-Subtracted Coronagraphic Imaging

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Moving Beyond HST into the Super-High Contrast Regime OPTICAL CONFIGURATIONS •Coronagraphy •Polarimetric Nulling •Nulling Interferometry •Wavefront Correction •Station-Keeping Occulters •Interferometric Arrays TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES               •Micro-Roughness of Optical Surfaces •Particulate/Contamination Control •Stray Light Management & Control •Pupil Apodization (and Shaping) •Metrological Tolerancing & Stability •Wavefront/Mirror Sensing & Control

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The Dusty Disk/Planet Connection

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< 1Myr Proplyds in Orion and… Substellar Objets to ~ 10 Mjup

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HH30 Obscured GM AUR Unembedded Direct Image Coronagraph + PSF Subtraction ~ 1— few Myr

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Coronagraph + PSF Subtraction

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Planet-Building Timeline HH 30

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Planet-Building Timeline

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Planet-Building Timeline 141569A

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T e r r e s t r i a l p l a n e t s f o r m C l e a r i n g o f i n n e r s o l a r s y s t e m , f o r m a t i o n o f a K u i p e r c o m e t a r y b e l t ? 1 0 8 y r s 1 0 9 y r s E r a o f h e a v y b o m b a r m e n t b y c o m e t s C u r r e n t a g e o f t h e S u n : 5 x 1 0 9 y r s . a P e r s e i S u n H y a d e s T u c a n a e A s s o c P l e i a d e s Primary Dust (≤ m m) Secondary Dust (≥ Locked to Gas Collisional erosion Clearing Timescales: P-R drag few 10 Rad. Pressure: ~ 10 F r o m : R . W e b b C o l l a p s i n g p r o t o s t a r f o r m s p r o t o - p l a n e t a r y d i s k 1 0 6 y r s T a u r u s , O p h i u c h u s s t a r f o r m i n g r e g i o n s m m) 6 4 R o c k y c o r e s o f g i a n t p l a n e t s f o r m a c c r e t e g a s e o u s a t m o s p h e r e s T W H y d r a e A s s o c G i a n t p l a n e t s Planet-Building Timeline

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Examples of Dusty Disks with Radial and Hemispheric Brightness Anisotropies and Complex Morphologies, Possibly Indicative of Dynamical Interactions with Unseen Planetary Mass Companions, Spatially Resolved and Imaged Around Young (< 10 Myr) Stars by HST.

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Examples of Dusty Disks with Radial and Hemispheric Brightness Anisotropies and Complex Morphologies, Possibly Indicative of Dynamical Interactions with Unseen Planetary Mass Companions, Spatially Resolved and Imaged Around Young (< 10 Myr) Stars by HST.

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Examples of Dusty Disks with Radial and Hemispheric Brightness Anisotropies and Complex Morphologies, Possibly Indicative of Dynamical Interactions with Unseen Planetary Mass Companions, Spatially Resolved and Imaged Around Young (< 10 Myr) Stars by HST.

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TW Hya (K7) “Old” PMS Star Pole-on circularly symmetric disk with a break in its surface brightness profile at 120 AU (2”). Examples of Dusty Disks with Radial and Hemispheric Brightness Anisotropies and Complex Morphologies, Possibly Indicative of Dynamical Interactions with Unseen Planetary Mass Companions, Spatially Resolved and Imaged Around Young (< 10 Myr) Stars by HST.

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HR 4796A 1.1mm 0.58mm

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Ansal Separation (Peaks) = 2.107” ± 0.0045” Major Axis of BFE = 2.114” ± 0.0055" P.A. of Major Axis (E of N) = 27.06° ± 0.18° Major:Minor Axial Length = (3.9658 ± 0.034): 1 Inclination of Pole to LOS = 75.73° ± 0.12° Photocentric Offset from BFE(Y) = -0.0159" ± 0.0048" Photocentric Offset from BFE(X) = +0.0031" ± 0.0028" HR 4796A RING GEOMETRY (Least-Squares Isophotal Ellipse Fit)

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Brightness (Normalized to NE Ansa) HR 4796A Circumstellar Debris Ring - WIDTH FWHM ring = 0.184” FWHM: 12.3±0.7AU 8.7% Dring 1-e-1 = 0.265” PSF point source = 0.070” Measured = 0.197” WIDTH AT NE ANSA 1-e-1: 17.7±10.1AU 12.5% Dring

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Ansal Separation (Peaks) = 2.107” ± 0.0045” Major Axis of BFE = 2.114” ± 0.0055" P.A. of Major Axis (E of N) = 27.06° ± 0.18° Major:Minor Axial Length = (3.9658 ± 0.034): 1 Inclination of Pole to LOS = 75.73° ± 0.12° Photocentric Offset from BFE(Y) = -0.0159" ± 0.0048" Photocentric Offset from BFE(X) = +0.0031" ± 0.0028" RING GEOMETRY - Least-Squares Isophotal Ellipse Fit

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“FACE-ON” PROJECTION - With Flux Conservation

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Spatially Resolved Relative PHOTOMETRY of the Ring

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N-Sigma Brightness Ratio (Percent) NW:SE Surface Brightness Anisotropy

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N-Sigma Brightness Ratio (Percent) Front:Back Surface Brightness Anisotropy

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Broad Colors of the HR 4796A Debris Ring Intrinsically red grains •Consistent with collisionally evolved population of particle sizes > few microns •Not primordial ISM grains •Similar intrinsic colors to TNOs in our solar system [V]-[J]=+1.07* •Consistent with laboratory* irradiation experiments on a variety of organics to study reddening of D & P type asteroids with distance From Sun. *Barucci et al (1993); Andronico et al (1987)

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. . 0 6 7 8 9 10 Log 10 Age (years) 80M jup 14M jup JUPITER SATURN STARS (Hydrogen burning) BROWN DWARFS (Deuterium burning) PLANETS 200M jup Evolution of M Dwarf Stars, Brown Dwarfs and Giant Planets (from Adam Burrows) -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 Log 10 L/Lsum sun Cooling Curves for Substellar Objects

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CORONAGRAPHIC COMPANION DETECTION (Multiaccum) Imaging at two S/C orientations (in a single HST visability period). Background objects rotate about occulted Target. PSF structures and optical artifacts do not. TWA6. Two Integrations: Median of 3 Multiaccum Each D Roll = 30° D Time = 20 minutes

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H “companion” = 20.1 DH = 13.2, r=2.5” At r=2.5” background brightness is reduced by an ADDITIONAL factor of 50 over raw coronagraphic gain (of appx 4). Each independent image of TWA6“B” is S/N ~20 in difference frame.

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Imperfections in PSF-subtractions result in residuals expected from pure photon noise. Systematics: OTA “Breathing” Target Re-centration Coron. Edge Effects Mechanical Stability

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Detectability and Spatial Completeness (r,q) Dependence via Model PSF Implantation Observed Model* Nulled Implant *TinyTim 5.0 HST+NICMOS Optical Model - Krist

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Detectability: (r,q) Dependence via Model PSF Implantation

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. 4 8 1 2 1 6 2 0 2 5 % Recovered Flux S/N (Positive Implant Only) Photometric Efficacy & Statistical Significance

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Detectability: (1”,q) Dependence via Model PSF Implantation

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NICMOS F160W 25 OCT 1998 Camera 2 (0.076"/pixel) Coronagraph (0.3" radius) Integration Time =1280s

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H-Band (F160W) Point-Source Detectability Limits Two-Roll Coronagraphic PSF Subtraction 22m Total Integration DH(5s) = 7.14 + 3.15r” - 0.286r” 2 {M&K Stars} . . Read Noise Dominated Photon Noise Dominated H=6.9

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TW Hya Assn K7primary, D = 55pc Age = 10 Myr r=2.54”, 140AU DH =13.2 (LB/A)[H]=5 x10-6 Habs = 16.6 Implies: • Mass ~ 2Jupiter • Teff ~ 800K IF Companion... S/NTWA6B = 35 TWA 6A/B

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Confirmation (or Rejection) by Common Proper Motion

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Anomaly or Bias? A Jovian Planet @ > 140 AU? • RV Surveys suggest ~ 5% MS *s have 0.8—8 Mjup companions @ d < 3AU from their primaries. • NOT Where Giant Planets are found in our own Solar System WHY ARE THEY THERE? Posited*: Mutual interactions within a disk can perturb one young planet to move into a < 1AU eccentric orbit (as inferred from RV surveys), and the other… Ejected (but bound) to very large separations, > 100AU Cannot be observationally tested with HST-like capabilities, requires “Super-High” contrast imaging. * e,g., Lin & Ida (ApJ, 1997); Boss (2001, IAU Symp 202)

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Inner Regions of Evolved Disks Cannot yet be probed in scattered light. Yet, as inferred from mid-IR: What evolutionary and dynamical interactions may be going on between unseen planets and unseen dust which will shape these systems? Requires “Super-High” contrast and resolution.

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. . 0 6 7 8 9 10 Log 10 Age (years) 80M jup 14M jup JUPITER SATURN STARS (Hydrogen burning) BROWN DWARFS (Deuterium burning) PLANETS 200M jup -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 Log 10 L/Lsum sun HST Has Sampled Only the Low-Hanging Fruit in the Disk/Planet Orchard. GL 503.2B GL577B/C CD -33° 7795B TWA6B ? HR 7329B

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Anomaly or Bias? A Jovian Planet @ > 140 AU? • RV Surveys suggest ~ 5% MS *s have 0.8—8 Mjup companions @ d < 3AU from their primaries. • NOT Where Giant Planets are found in our own Solar System WHY ARE THEY THERE? Posited*: Mutual interactions within a disk can perturb one young planet to move into a < 1AU eccentric orbit (as inferred from RV surveys), and the other… Ejected (but bound) to very large separations, > 100AU * e,g., Lin & Ida (ApJ, 1997); Boss (2001, IAU Symp 202)

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GLENN SCHNEIDER NICMOS Project Steward Observatory 933 N. Cherry Avenue University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 Phone: 520-621-5865 FAX: 520-621-1891 e-mail: [email protected] http://nicmosis.as.arizona.edu:8000/ UV/Optical imaging and spectroscopy of collisionally evolved circumstellar debris and co-orbital bodies will play a pivotal role in furthering our understanding of the formation and evolution of exosolar planetary systems. To study physical processes acting over sub-AU spatial scales and time scales comparable to the age of our solar system will require a 3—4 order of magnitude improvement in instrumental stray light rejection over the performance obtainable with HST.

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Is it, or Isn’t It? • Undetected in NICMOS 0.9mm Followup Observation I-H > 3 • Marginally Detected in 6-Orbit Binned STIS G750L Spectrum • Colors Consistent with 2 Mjup, 10 Myr, “Hot” Giant Planet Instrument Band Bandpass Mag   NICMOS/C2 F160W 1.40—1.80 20.1 NICMOS/C2 F090M 0.80—1.00 >23.1 STIS/G750L I extract 0.81—0.99 ~25.4 STIS/G750L R extract 0.63—0.77 >27.2 If NOT a hot young planet, it must be a Highly exotic object!

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Is it, or Isn’t It? • Undetected in NICMOS 0.9mm Followup Observation I-H > 3 • Marginally Detected in 6-Orbit Binned STIS G750L Spectrum • Colors Consistent with 2 Mjup, 10 Myr, “Hot” Giant Planet* • Keck/AO Astrometric (PM) Follow-up Thus-Far Inconclusive * Sudarsky et al., 2000 Spectrum from A. Burrows

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Is it, or Isn’t It? A differential proper motion measure will be obtained with NICMOS. If common proper motions are confirmed we will request time for NICMOS grism spectrophotometry to obtain a near-IR spectrum.

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