17 IE 14March 07

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Slide1: 

Environmental Product Design – Example: Cell Phones

Slide2: 

Material Composition of Cell Phones WEEE Directive Category 3 products: 75% Recovery 65% Recycling and reuse

Slide3: 

Cell Phone Evolution

Slide4: 

Plastic housing and keypad Liquid crystal display (LCD) Printed wiring board (PWB) Connectors Active electronic components (e.g. integrated circuits) Passive electronic components (e.g. capacitors and resistors) Microphones and speakers Cell Phone Components

Slide5: 

Global Cell Phone Market

Slide6: 

Life Cycle of a Cell Phone Integrated Product Policy Pilot Project Stage I: Environmental issues Stage II: Improvement options Stage III: Evaluation of options All reports are posted on the course website

Slide7: 

Environmental Assessments of Cell Phones at Nokia McLaren & Piukkula 2003: Life cycle assessment (using GaBi3) Scope: 2000 cell phone (90 gr), production and use, no eol management include battery and charger, exclude network infrastructure Functional unit: Use of the cell phone for 2 years Impact categories: Primary energy consumption (PEC), global warming potential (GWP), Ozone depletion potential (ODP), acidification potential (AP), human toxicity potential (HTP), photochemical oxidant creation potential (POCP) Wright 1999: Life cycle energy analysis Scope: ‘92-’94 (160 gr) and ‘95-’96 (130 gr) cell phones, production, use, eol management, exclude battery, charger, network infrastructure Functional unit: Use of the cell phone for 2.5 years Impact categories: Primary energy consumption (PEC) Frey 2002: Environmental footprint analysis Scope: ‘92-’94 (160 gr) and ‘95-’96 (130 gr) cell phones, production, use, eol management, exclude battery, charger, network infrastructure Functional unit: Use of the cell phone for 2.5 years Indicator: Total area required to produce required resources and assimilate generated wastes

Slide8: 

Summary of environmental hotspots of a cell phone Life cycle stages: Component manufacture and use phase Environmental concern: energy consumption Use phase: Stand-by power consumption of the charger Component manufacture: Energy consumption of manufacturing processes Components with highest environmental impacts: PWB, ICs, LCD Transportation: Airfreight accounts for almost all of environmental impacts End-of-life: Positive environmental impacts from metals recovery Beyond the handset: Energy consumption of radio base station

Slide9: 

1) 2003 Nokia study gives only 150 MJ for product manufacture. Breakdown is from an earlier Nokia study from 1999, as is the end-of-life assessment. Cell Phone Life Cycle: Primary Energy Consumption (PEC) Perspective: 275 MJ is the gross calorific value of 7.9 liters of gasoline, or 52 km in a Lincoln Navigator, or 185 km in a Toyota Prius.

Slide10: 

Options for improving life cycle environmental performance of cell phones Improvement in cell phone design Optimizing the in-use life-span of cell phone Less energy and environmentally relevant chemicals during component manufacture Change buying, usage and disposal behavior of consumers Improve eol management of cell phones Reduce energy consumption of network infrastructure Develop environmental assessment methods/tools Need for policies to support environmental performance improvements

Slide11: 

Handset mass and gold content have been declining over the past ten years % gr Gold contains: 60% - 80% of the economic value of the materials (depending on the palladium content) 65% - 75% of the energy embodied in the materials

Slide12: 

Therefore economic and environmental benefits due to gold recycling has been declining as well MJ £ Question: How much longer will cell phone recycling be profitable?

Slide13: 

End-of-life phone disposal Phone demand & use Primary materials production Components manufacture Final phone assembly Component reuse Phone refurbishment Metals recycling End-of-life phone collection Metals market Inspection & sorting Alternatives to cell phone recycling:

Slide14: 

Reading for Friday, 16 March: Tim Jackson (2005) Live Better by Consuming Less?, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9(1-2) 19-36 (posted on course website)

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