Past Continuous vs Past Perfect

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Past Continuous:

Past Continuous Past continuous (I was doing) (a) Изучите данную ситуацию: Yesterday at that time I was playing football. was playing - означает, что он был в процессе игры в футбол. Он уже начал игру, но еще не закончил ее.Это время называется Past continuous Мы используем Past continuous , чтобы сказать,что действие началось или продолжается в какой-то момент в прошлом. Например: - She was sitting comfortably on the floor. - The boy was throwing stones at a kitten which was sitting on the fence across the street. Past continuous не говорит нам что-либо об окончании действия. Возможно, оно потом закончилось, возможно - нет. Сравните: - She was cooking the supper. (past continuous) = Она готовила ужин, но мы не знаем, перестала ли она это делать. - She cooked the supper. (past simple) = Она начала и закончила готовить ужин. Определенный момент часто не выражен прямо,но понятен из ситуации. Например: - Red Chief was sitting on Bill's chest holding him by hair with one hand. He was trying to take Bill's scalp. - He was standing in front of him ready to strike him with a big stone. (b) Время Past continuous образуется при помощи прошедшего времени глагола to be и причастия настоящего времени. Например: I/he/she waswe/they/you were playing

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(c) Мы часто используем Past continuous , чтобы сказать, что кто-то находился в процессе совершения какого-либо действия в определённый момент в прошлом. Действие или ситуация уже начались перед этим моментом, но еще не закончились. - This time yesterday the Time Traveller was talking to a group of his friends about the problem of travelling in time. (d) Это время не говорит нам о том, закончилось ли действие: - The Time Ttraveller was moving further and further into the future. (e) Время Past continuous часто употребляют с Past simple ,чтобы сказать, что что-то еще произошло во время совершения действия: - Just at daybreak I woke up because Bill was screaming. - When I came back to a cave I saw that Bill was standing with his back to the wall. Но чтобы сказать, что одно произошло после другого, используется past simple : - Arthur gave the sailor his watch and money and the salor went away. (f) Время Past continuous часто употребляется после таких фраз, как: the whole day , all day long . - The car was waiting for them at the stage door the whole day. - All day long he was walking noiselessly, like a scout. (g) Время Past continuous употребляется для выражения действия, рассматриваемого как постоянно продолжающийся процесс. В этом случае используются такие наречия, как: always , ever , constantly . - His photograph was always appearing in the illustrated papers. - Ann was constantly complaining of being lonely. Запомните: Существуют несколько глаголов (например know ), которые обычно не используются в continuous tenses .

Past Perfect:

Past Perfect (a) Past Perfect Tense образуется при помощи had + past participle ( seen , gone , opened , written , looked , и т.д.). Список причастий прошедшего времени от неправильных глаголов ( past participle ) смотри в Appendix2 . Мы используем Past Perfect для того, чтобы показать: 1. что действие было завершено до определенного момента в прошлом: - I had written a letter by two o'clock. 2. что одно действие было завершено перед другим действием в прошлом: - She had already left when I came. - I didn't know what I should write. I had never written letters before. (b) Past Perfect ( I had done ) - это прошедшее время от Present Perfect ( I have done ). Cравните: PresentPastI'm not hungry. I've just had lunch.The house is dirty. We haven'tcleaned it for weeks.I wasn't hungry. I'd just had lunch.The house was dirty. We hadn'tcleaned it for weeks. (c) Сравните Past Perfect и Past Simple : - Was Mary ready to go to the cinema when you came to her? - Yes, she had been ready by the moment. - Jack wasn't in when I phoned him. He was in his office. - Jack had just got home when I phoned him. He had been in his office.

Таблица времен:

Таблица времен Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Future Simple Future Continuous Future Perfect


Упражнения Когда я вернулся в офис, секретарь уже напечатала все документы. (Мое возвращение – это событие в прошлом, до него произошло другое действие – печать документов) Он вернулся к четырем часам. (Четыре часа – время в прошлом. До него совершилось действие – его возвращение) К тому моменту, как прозвенел звонок, ученики закончили писать сочинение. (Звонок – момент прошлого. До этого момента закончилось действие – написание сочинения) Past Perfect Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола had и Participle 2. She had done her room by the time the parents returned home. Она прибралась в комнате к тому времени, как вернулись ее родители. The writer had finished the article by twelve o’clock. Писатель закончил статью к двенадцати часам. My wife had cooked breakfast by the time I woke up. Моя жена приготовила завтрак к тому времени, как я проснулся. The secretary had taped all the documents by the moment her chief came. Секретарь напечатала все документы к тому моменту, как пришел ее начальник.


Упражнения He had done the work by five o’clock. - Had he done the work by five o’clock? Он выполнил работу к пяти часам. - Он выполнил работу к пяти часам? The pupil had chosen the right answer. - Had the pupil chosen the right answer? Ученик выбрал правильный ответ. - Ученик выбрал правильный ответ? You had caught the train. - Had you caught the train? Вы успели на поезд. - Вы успели на поезд? The teacher had checked the tests by the time the students came to the lesson. - Had the teacher checked the tests by the time the students came to the lesson. Учитель проверил тесты к тому моменту, как на урок пришли студенты. - Учитель проверил тесты к тому моменту, как на урок пришли студенты? Отрицание образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола had: The driver had not kept the traffic rulers. Водитель не соблюдал правила дорожного движения. The instructor had not come in time. Инструктор пришел не вовремя. The scientists had not used new methods. Ученые не использовали новые методы. This old man had not taken medicine before the heart attack. Этот старик не принимал лекарства до сердечного приступа.


Упражнения Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или Present Simple. His father (not to watch) TV at the moment. He (to sleep) because he (to be) tired. 2. Pat (not to cook) dinner at the moment. She (to talk) dinner every Monday. 3. I (not to drink) coffee now. I (to write) an English exercise. 4. I (not to drink) coffee in the evening. I (to drink) coffee in the morning. 5. Your friend (to do) his homework now? 6. Your friend (to go) to school in the morning? 7. Look! The baby (to sleep). 8. The baby always (to sleep) after dinner. 9. My grandmother (not to work). She is on pension. 10. My father (not to sleep) now. He (to work) in the garden. 11. I usually (to get) up at seven o’clock in the morning. 12. What your sister (to do) now? – She (to wash) her face and hands. 13. When you usually (to come) home from school? – I (to come) at three o’clock. 14. Where your cousin (to work)? – He (to work) at a hospital. 15. Your sister (to study) at college? – No, she (to go) to school. 16. My cousin (to go) to school every day. 17. My mother (not to play) the piano now. She (to play) the piano in the morning. 18. When you (to listen) to the news on the radio? 19. Who (to make) breakfast for you now? 20. You (to read) a magazine and (to think) about your holidays at the moment? 21. They (to be) good dancers but they (not to do) to discos very often. 22. What she (to talk) about right now? Раскройте скобки, употребляя в Present Continuous или Past Continuous. 1. I (to write) an English exercise now. 2. I (to write) an English exercise at this time yesterday. 3. My little sister (to sleep) now. 4. My little sister (to sleep) at this time yesterday. 5. My friends (not to do) their homework now. They (to play) volleyball. 6. My friends (not to do) their homework at seven o’clock yesterday. They (to play) volleyball. 7. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday. 8. She (not to read) now. 9. Now she (to go) to school. 10. What you (to do) now? – I (to drink) tea.

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1) Закончите предложения используя слова из скобок. a. You went to Jill's house but she wasn't there. She (she / go / out) b. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before. It (it / change / a lot). c. I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn't come. She (she / arrange / to do something else) d. I was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time. I (not / see / him for five years) I offered Sue something to eat but she wasn't hungry. (she / just / have / breakfast) 2) Используйте глагол из скобок в правильном времени Past Perfect или Past Simple a. "Was Tom at the party when you arrived?" "No, he (go) home" b. I felt very tired when I got home, so I (go) straight to bed. c. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody (go) to bed. d. Sorry, I'm late. The car (break) down on my way here. e. We were driving the road when we (see) a car which (break) down, so we stopped to see if we could help.

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