Spanish Grammar Book

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Spanish Grammar Book:

Spanish Grammar Book Bibiana Ferris

Present Tense:

To form the present tense of a Spanish verb, you drop the ending and add one of the following endings For – ar verbs For – ir verbs For - er verbs Present Tense -o - amos -as - éis -a -an -o - emos - es - éis -e -en -o - imos - es - í s -e -en

Ser vs. Estar:

Ser is used for: Descriptions Origin Characteristics Time Occupation Relationships Possession Events Dates Ser vs. Estar Estar is used for: geographic or physical location state or condition many idiomatic expressions progressive tenses

Verbs Like Gustar:

These verbs use pronouns that agree with the subject Gustar sentences will always have three components An indirect object pronoun A form of a verb like gustar A subject with a definite article If the subject is singular, the verb is conjugated in the 3rd person singular form If what is pleasing is plural, then the verb is conjugated in the 3rd person plural form Examples: Me gusta bailar . Nos gustan los libros . Verbs Like Gustar Me Nos Te Le Les Indirect Object Pronouns

Nouns and Articles/Adjectives:

In Spanish, the articles and adjectives must agree with the nouns For example, if the verb is “ chicas ” (plural and feminine), ending in –as, the article would be “ las ” If the noun is plural and masculine, the article would be “los”. Singular and feminine is “la” and singular and masculine is “el” If there was an adjective in the sentence, the adjective must agree with the noun as well Las chic as bonit as son alt as . El perr o es baj o . Nouns and Articles/Adjectives

Preterite:

Preterite -é - amos - aste -ó - aron - ar Verbs - í - imos - iste - ió - ieron - er / ir Verbs When translating verbs in the preterite form, drop the - ar , - er , or – ir ending and add one of the following endings.

Irregular Preterite:

Irregular Preterite Di/Vi Dimos / Vimos Diste / Viste Dio / Vio Dieron / Vieron Dar/ Ver Hice Hicimos Hiciste Hizo Hicieron Hacer Fui Fuimos Fuiste Fue Fueron Ir y Ser andar anduv - estar estuv- tener tuv- caber cup- haber hub- poder pud- poner pus- saber sup- hacer hic- querer quis- venir vin - -e -iste -o -imos -ieron The following preterite irregular verbs all follow a pattern. While their stems change, they all take the following endings. Endings:

Imperfecto:

Imperfecto - aba - abamos - abas - aba - aban - ar Verbs - ía - íamos - ías - ía - ían - er / ir Verbs When translating verbs in the imperfect form, drop the - ar , - er , or – ir ending and add one of the following endings.

Irregular Imperfect:

Irregular Imperfect veía veíamos veías veía veían era éramos eras era eran iba íbamos ibas iba iban Ser Ir Ver There are only three irregular verbs in the imperfect:

Preterite vs. Imperfect:

Preterite is used for the following situations: For actions that can be viewed as single events For actions that were repeated a specific number of times For actions that occurred during a specific period of time For actions that were part of a chain of events To state the beginning or the end of an action Preterite vs. Imperfect Imperfect is used for the following situations: For actions that were repeated habitually For actions that "set the stage" for another past action For telling time For stating one's age For mental states (usually) For physical sensations (usually) To describe the characteristics of people, things or conditions

Subjunctive in noun clauses:

The subjunctive is used mainly in multiple clause sentences which express will, influence, emotion, doubt, or denial. The present subjunctive is formed by dropping the –o from the yo form of the present indicative and adding the subjunctive endings. Subjunctive in noun clauses Hable Coma Escriba Hables Comas Escribas Hable Coma Escriba Hablemos Comamos Escribamos Habléis Com áis Escrib áis Hablen Coman Escriban

Formal Commands:

For usted and ustedes form To give advice or orders How to form them: Conjugate the verb to the present “ yo ” form Drop the o Add the opposite ending For negative commands, the object pronoun comes before the command For affirmative commands, the object pronoun hooks onto the command and an accent is added to the third syllable from the end Formal Commands

Irregular Formal Commands:

T – Tenga ( tener ) V – Venga ( venir ) and Vea ( ver ) D – Diga ( decir ) and Dé ( dar ) I – Vaya ( ir ) S – Sea (ser) H – Haga ( hacer ) and Haya ( haber ) E – Esté ( estar ) S – Sepa (saber) Stem changes maintain their stem changes when forming formal commands -Car, -Gar, - Zar Examples: Sacar  saquen Jugar  juegue Almorzar  almuerce Irregular Formal Commands

Informal Tú Commands:

Positive commands: Present tense of the él / ella form Negative commands: For – ar verbs, add – es ( hablar  hablo  no hables ) For – er and – ir verbs, add –as ( prender  prendo  no prendas ) ( pedir  pido  no pidas ) Irregulars: Di/No Nigas ( decir ) Haz /No hagas ( hacer ) Ven /No vengas ( venir ) Ten/No tengas ( tener ) Pon /No pongas ( poner ) Sé /No seas (ser) Ve /No veas ( ver ) Sal/No salgas ( salir ) Informal T ú Commands

Nosotros Commands:

Used when the speaker suggests an action to be performed by a group of people he or she belongs to To form the subjunctive nosotros command, simply state the verb in the nosotros form of the present subjunctive Tomemos un taxi. (Let's take a taxi.) Comamos aquí . (Let's eat here.) For negative nosotros commands, there is only one form: the present subjunctive. Simply add a no, or other negative word, in front of the verb to make the command negative. No nademos . (Let’s not swim.) No salgamos . (Let’s not leave.) Nosotros Commands

Irregular Subjunctive in noun clauses:

Verbs with irregular yo forms show that same regularity throughout the forms of the present subjunctive. Conocer  Conozca Decir  Diga Hacer  Haga Verbs that have stem changes in the present indicative also have them in the present subjunctive These 5 verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive Dar  d é , des, dé , demos deis , den Estar  est é , estés , esté , estemos , estéis , estén Ir  vaya , vayas , vaya , vayamos , vay áis , vayan Saber  sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sep áis, sepan Ser  sea, seas, sea, seamos, se áis, sean Irregular Subjunctive in noun clauses

Object Pronouns:

Direct and indirect pronouns precede the conjugated verb. When the verb is an infinitive construction, object pronouns may either be attached to the infinitive or placed before the conjugated verb When the verb is progressive, object pronouns may either be attached to the present participle or placed before the conjugated verb Object Pronouns

Double object pronouns:

The indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together Le and les change to se when they are used with lo, la, los, or las Double object pronouns Me Nos Te Os Le Les Me Nos Te Os Lo/la Los/ las Indirect Direct

Possessive adjectives and pronouns:

Possessive adjectives and pronouns míos /as mío/a tuyos /as tuyo/a suyos/as suyo/a nuestros /as nuestro /a vuestros/as vuestro /a suyos /as suyo/a Possessive adjectives (long forms) yo Subject pronoun Singular Plural tú él ella Ud. ellos ellas Uds. my, (of) mine your (fam.) , (of) yours his, (of) his, its hers, (of) hers, its your (form.) our, (of) ours their, (of) theirs their, (of) theirs your (form. pl.) , (of) yours) your (fam. pl.) , (of) yours)

Possessive adjectives and pronouns cont.:

Possessive adjectives are used to express ownership or possession. Unlike English, Spanish has 2 types of possessive adjectives: the short, or unstressed, forms and the long, or stressed, forms. Both forms agree in gender and number with the object owned, and not with the owner. Because su (s) and suyo (s)/a(s) have multiple meanings, the construction (article) + (noun) + de + (subject pronoun) can be used to clarify meaning. Possessive adjectives and pronouns cont.

Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns:

Used to specify to which noun a speaker is referring. They precede the nouns they modify and agree in gender and number. There are 3 sets of demonstrative adjectives in Spanish. Forms of este are used to point out nouns that are close to the speaker and the listener. Forms of ese modify nouns that are not close to the speaker, though they may be close to the listener. Forms of aquel refer to nouns that are far away from both the speaker and the listener. Demonstrative pronouns are the same except they carry an accent mark on the stressed vowel Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns

Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns cont.:

este (this one - masculine) estos (these ones - masculine) esta (this one - feminine) estas (these ones - feminine) ese (that one - masculine) esos (those ones - masculine) esa (that one - feminine) esas (those ones - feminine) aquel (that one over there - masc.) aquellos (those ones over there - masc.) aquella (that one over there - fem.) aquellas (those ones over there - fem.) Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns cont.

Subjunctive in adverbial clauses:

When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something that is known to exist, the indicative is used. When the antecedent is uncertain or indefinite, the subjunctive is used. Example: Indicative: Tiene un esposo que la trata con respeto y comprension . Subjunctive: Quiere un esposo que la trate con respeto y comprension . Subjunctive in adverbial clauses

Reflexive verbs:

In a reflexive construction, the subject of the verb both performs and receives the action. Reflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns. Reflexive verbs Yo Me lavo Tu Te lavas Ud ./el/ ella Se lava Nosotros Nos lavamos Vosotros Os lavais Uds ./ ellos / ellas Se lavan Lavarse – to wash (oneself)

Para vs. Por :

Para: destination, deadline or a specific time in the future, purpose or goal + (infinitive), purpose + (noun), recipient, comparison with others or opinion, employment Por : motion or a general location, duration of an action, reason or motive for an action, object of a search, means by which, exchange or substitution, unit of measure, agent (passive voice) Para vs. Por

To become: hacerse, ponerse, volverse, and llegar a ser:

All of these verbs mean to become Ponerse + (adjective) expresses a change in mental, emotional, or physical state that is generally not long-lasting Volverse + (adjective) expressed a radical mental or psychological change, Often conveys a gradual or irreversible change in character Hacerse can be followed by a noun or an adjective. Often implies a change that results from the subjects own efforts, such as changes in profession or social and political status Lllegar a ser may also be followed by a noun or an adjective. It indicates a change over time and doesn’t imply the subjects voluntary effort. To become: hacerse , ponerse , volverse , and llegar a ser

El Futuro:

The future tense uses the same endings for all – ar , - er , and – ir verbs For regular verbs, the endings are added to the infinitive For irregular verbs, the same future endings are added to the irregular stem El Futuro é emos ás éis á án

The Conditional:

Uses the same endings for all – ar , - er , and – ir verbs For regular verbs, the endings are added to the infinitive Verbs with irregular future stems have the same irregular stem in the conditional The Conditional ía íamos ías íais ía ían

Present Perfect:

Expresses what has happened n Usually refers to recently completed actions or to a past that still bears relevance in the present Formed with present tense of haber and a past particple Formed by adding –ado to the stem of – ar verbs and – ido to – er and – ir When the stem of an – er or – ir verb ends in a, e, or o, the past participle requires a written accent ( ido ) to maintain the correct stress Past participles don’t change form in the present perfect tense Present Perfect

Relative Pronouns:

El pronombre relativo Que Que is the most frequently used relative pronoun While some relative pronouns may be omitted in English, they must always be used in Spanish Can refer to people or things, subjects or objects, and can be used in restrictive clauses or nonrestrictive clauses El que /La que After prepositions, que is used with the definite article: el que , la que , los que , or las que The article must agree in gender and number with the thing or person it refers to When referring to things, the article may be omitted after short prepositions, such as en, de, and con The 4 listed above are also used for clarification in nonrestrictive clauses when it might be unclear to what or who the clause refers Relative Pronouns

Relative Pronouns cont.:

El cual /La cual El cual , la cual , los cuales , and las cuales are generally interchangeable with el que , la que , las que , and los que Often used in more formal speech When el cual and its forms are used, the definite article is never omitted Quien / Quienes Used to refer only to people Quien ( es ) is generally interchangeable with forms of el que and el cual Although que and quien ( es ) may both refer to people, their use depends on the structure of the sentence In restrictive clauses that refer to people, que is used if no preposition is present. If a preposition or the person a is present, quien (or el que /el cual ) is used instead In nonrestrictive clauses that refer to people, quien (or el que /el cual ) is generally used, not que Relative Pronouns cont.

Relative Pronouns cont.:

Relative adjecto cuyo Relative adjective cuyo ( cuya , cuyas , cuyos ) means whose and agrees in number and gender with the noun it precedes De quien ( es ), not cuyo , is used in questions to express whose Relative Pronouns cont.

Que vs. Cual:

Both of these words can mean what/which but they aren’t interchangeable Que is used to ask general information, explanations, or definitions Cual ( es ) is use to ask for specific information or to choose from a limited set of possibilities. Often, either que or cual ( es ) may be used in the same sentence, but with different meanigns Cual ( es ) is not used before nouns. Que is used instead, regardless of the type of information requested Both are sometimes used in declarative sentences Que is also used frequently in exclamations. In this case it means What…! Or How…! Que vs. Cual

The Neuter Lo:

The neuter article lo is used to refer to concepts that have no gender The construction lo+ (masculine singular adjective) is used to express general characteristics and abstract ideas The English equivilant is the + (adjective) + thing To express the idea of the most or the least, mas and menos can be added after lo Lo mejor and lo peor mean the best/worst (thing) The construction lo+ (adjective or adverb) + que is used to express the English how + (adjective) In these cases, the adjective agrees in number and gender with the noun it modifies Lo que is equivalent to the English what, that, which. It is used to refer to an abstract idea, or to a previously mentioned situation or concept The Neuter Lo

Subjunctive in Adverbial Clause:

Adverb clauses modify the verb in the main clauses. They say something about how, when, where or why that action occurs, and are always introduced by a conjunction The subjunctive is used in adverb clauses when the action described in the clause is anticipated or hypothetical (a reservation, a condition not yet met, a mere intention) Examples: No puedes ganar a menos que te apoyen. Se fue antes de que yo hablara con ella. Subjunctive in Adverbial Clause

Past Subjunctive:

Formed by dropping the – ron ending from the ustedes / ellos / ellas form of the preterite and adding the past subjunctive endings Verbs that have stem changes or irregularities in the ustedes / ellos / ellas form of the preterite have those same irregularities in all forms of the past subjunctive Past Subjunctive Caminara Perdiera Viviera Caminaras Perdieras Vivieras Caminara Perdiera Viviera Camina’ramos Perdie’ramos Vivie’ramos Caminarais Perdierais Vivierais Caminaran Perdieran Vivieran Caminar Perder Vivir

Comparisons and Superlatives:

Comparisons Of inequality With adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs, the following constructions are used to make comparisons of inequality Mas/ menos + ( adj , adv , noun) + que (verb) + man/ menos que Before a number (or equivalent expression), more/less than is expressed with mas / menos de Of equality The following constructions are used to make comparisons of equality tan + (adjective/adverb) + como tanto /a(s) + (singular/plural noun) + como (verb) + tanto como Superlatives Noun is preceded by a definite article, and de is equivalent to in or of el/la/los/ las + (noun) + mas / menos + (adjective) + de The noun man also be omitted from a superlative construction Comparisons and Superlatives

Adverbs:

Usually follow the verbs the modify and precede adjectives or other adverbs Formed by adding – mente to feminine singular form of adjective If 2 or more adverbs describe the same verb, - mente is only added to the last one The construciton con + (noun) is sometimes used instead of long adverbs using – mente Poco and bien sometimes modify adjectives Poco usually means un- (in English) and bien means well, very, rather, or quite Adverbs

Diminutives and Augumentatives:

Emphasize size or express shades of meaning like affection or ridicule Formed by adding a suffix to the root of nouns or adjectives, and occasionally adverbs Most common diminutive suffixes are forms of – ito /a and – illo /a. Most words form the diminutive by adding – ito /a or – illo /a For words ending in vowels (except –e), the last vowel is dropped before the suffix Most words that end in –e, -n, or –r use the forms – cito /a or – cillo /a One syllable words often use – ecito /a or ecillo /a The most common augmentative suffixes are forms of –on/- ona , - ote / ota , and – azo /- aza Most words for augmentative by adding the suffix to the word. For words ending in vowels, the final vowel is usually dropped Feminine nouns become masculine in the augmentative when the suffix – on is used, unless they specifically refer to someone’s gender Diminutives and Augumentatives

Present Perfect:

In Spanish, the present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb " haber " with the past participle. Haber is conjugated as follows: he has ha hemos habéis han The past participle is formed by dropping the infinitive ending and adding either -ado or - ido . Examples: Juan ha pagado las cuentas. Juan y María han viajado a España. Present Perfect

Present Perfect Subjunctive:

Formed with present subjunctive of haber and a past participle Used to refer to recently completed actions or past actions that still bear relevance in the present Used mainly in multiple-clause sentences that express will, emotion, doubt, or uncertainty Present Perfect Subjunctive

Uses of se :

Often used as a substitute for the passive voice when the person performing the action isn’t stated Third person singular verb form is used with singular nouns, and third person plural form is used with plural nouns When passive se refers to a specific person or persons, the personal a is used and the verb is always singular Se is also used with third person singular verbs in impersonal constructions where the subject of the sentence is indefinite Constructions of the impersonal se are often used on signs and warnings Se is also used in statements that describe accidental or unplanned incidents Uses of se

Past participles used as adjectives:

Past participles are used with haber to form compound tenses and with ser to express the passive voice Also frequently used as adjectives Often used with the verb estar to express a state or condition that results from the action of another verb Frequently express physical or emotional states May bee used as adjectives with other verbs as well Past participles used as adjectives

Time expressions with hacer:

The verb " hacer " can be used in a number of ways to indicate the length of time an action has been taking place. The first way uses the formula: Hace + time + que + present tense form of the verb Examples: Hace un año que estudio español . Hace dos años que ellas estudian inglés . Another way to use the verb " hacer " to express how long something has been taking place is to use the following formula: Present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time Examples: Estudio español desde hace un año . Ellas estudian inglés desde hace dos años . Time expressions with hacer

Future Perfect:

Formed with future of haber and a past participle Used to express what will have happened at a certain point The phrase para + (time expression) is often used with the future perfect May also express supposition or probability regarding a past action Future Perfect Ganar Habre ganado Habras ganado Habra ganado Habremos ganado Habreis ganado Habran ganado

Conditional Perfect:

Formed with conditional of haber and a past participle Expressed what would have occurred but did not May also express probability or conjecture about the past Conditional Perfect tomar correr subir Habria tomado Habria corrido Habria subido Habrias tomado Habrias corrido Habrias subido Habria tomado Habria corrido Habria subido Habriamos tomado Habriamos corrido Habriamos subido Habriais tomado Habriais corrido Habriais subido Habrian tomado Habrian corrido Habrian subido

Si clauses:

Express a condition or event upon which another condition depends Often hypothetical statements Contain a subordinate clause and a main clause The si clause may be the first or second clause in a sentence A comma is used only when the si comes first There are 4 ways to form a si clause Present indicative, main clause (about future) Past subjunctive, conditional (about present) Past present subjunctive, conditional perfect (about past) Imperfect, imperfect (conditions and actions in the past) Si clauses

Transitional expressions:

Transitional expressions aid in composition and create fluency between topics Here are some examples: at first = al principio at last = por fin at the beginning = al principio at the same time = al mismo tiempo , a la misma vez at once = inmediatamente before = antes de ( que ) briefly = brevemente , consisamenteday before yesterday = antes de ayer , antier during = durante eventually = eventualmente finally = finalmente , por fin first = primero Transitional expressions

Pero vs. Sino:

Pero is used to join two contrasting idea when the second phrase does not negate the first. Instead, you can think of it as adding on to the first idea. No soy española, pero hablo bien el idioma. Sino is used generally in negative sentences in which the second phrase negates or corrects the first. The equivalent in English would be "but rather" or "but on the contrary". Hoy no voy a estudiar biología, sino matemáticas. Pero vs. Sino

The passive voice:

Recipient of the action becomes the subject of the sentence Emphasize the thing that was done or the person that was acted upon (recipient) + ser + (past participle) + por + (agent) Singular forms of ser are used with singular recipients and same for plural Past participle must agree in number and gender with recipient(s) The passive voice

Negative and indefinite expressions:

Indefinite words refer to people and things that aren’t specific Negative words deny something’s existence or contradict statements Double negatives are acceptable Most negative statements use the pattern no + (verb) + (negative word) When negative word precedes the verb, no is omitted Once a negative word is used, all other indefinite ideas must be expressed in the negative The personal a is used before negative and indefinite words that refer to people when they are the direct object of the verb Negative and indefinite expressions

Past Perfect:

Formed with the imperfect of haber and a past participle Expressed what someone had done or what has occurred before another action or condition in the past Past Perfect Viajar Perder Incluir Habia viajado Habia perdido Habia incluido Habias viajado Habias perdido Habias incluido Habia viajado Habia perdido Habia incluido Habiamos viajado Habiamos perdido Habiamos incluido Habiais viajado Habiais perdido Habiais incluido Habian viajado Habian perdido Habian incluido

Past Perfect Subjunctive:

Formed with the past subjunctive of haber and past participle Ex: hubiera cambiado Used in subordinate clauses under some conditions for other subjunctive forms Refers to actions or conditions that had taken place before another past occurrence When the action in the main clause is in the past, both the past subjunctive and the past perfect subjunctive can be used in the subordinate clause Past Perfect Subjunctive

Uses of the infinitive:

Commonly used after other conjugated verbs, especially when there is no change of subject When the person or thing performing the action changed, the second verb is usually conjugated as part of a subordinate clause Often, an indirect pronoun is used to show a change in subject May be used with impersonal expressions such as es importante , es facil , and es bueno Required after hay que and tener que Used after prepositions Uses of the infinitive

Prepositions: a, hacia, con, de, desde, en, entre, hasta, and sin:

Prepositions allow you to connect your thoughts and make your sentences more precise A - to, at, from, by, on, for, upon Con - with, to De - of, about, on, with, because of, by, at En - in, on, at Hacia - towards, to, at about or around Desde - from, since Entre - among, between Hasta - until, to, up to, as far as, even, including Sin - without Prepositions: a, hacia , con, de, desde , en, entre, hasta , and sin

Summary of Indicative and Subjunctive:

Indicative subjunctive Present Timeless events, habitual events that still occur, events happening right now, future events expected to happen Main clause is in the present, main clause is in the future Past Main clause is in past, hypothetical statements about the present Preterite Actions of states beginning/ending at a definite point in the past Imperfect Past events without focus on beginning, end, or completeness, habitual past actions, mental, physical , and emotional states Future Future events, probability about the present Conditional What would happen, future events in past-tense narration, conjecture about the past Present perfect What has occurred Main clause is in the present while subordinate clause is in the past Past perfect What had occurred Main clause is in the past and subordinate clause refers to earlier event, hypothetical statements about the past Future perfect What will have occurred Conditional perfect What would have occurred Summary of Indicative and Subjunctive