Spanish Grammar Book

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Brooke Ferris

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Spanish Grammar Book:

Spanish Grammar Book Bibiana Ferris

Present Tense:

To form the present tense of a Spanish verb, you drop the ending and add one of the following endings For – ar verbs For – ir verbs For - er verbs Present Tense -o- - amos -as - éis -a -an -o - emos - es - éis -e -en -o - imos - es - í s -e -en

Nouns and Articles/Adjectives:

In Spanish, the articles and adjectives must agree with the nouns For example, if the verb is “ chicas ” (plural and feminine), ending in –as, the article would be “ las ” If the noun is plural and masculine, the article would be “los”. Singular and feminine is “la” and singular and masculine is “el” If there was an adjective in the sentence, the adjective must agree with the noun as well Las chic as bonit as son alt as . El perr o es baj o . Nouns and Articles/Adjectives

Ser vs. Estar:

Ser is used for: Descriptions Origin Characteristics Time Occupation Relationships Possession Events Dates Ser vs. Estar Estar is used for: geographic or physical location state or condition many idiomatic expressions progressive tenses

Verbs Like Gustar:

These verbs use pronouns that agree with the subject Gustar sentences will always have three components An indirect object pronoun A form of a verb like gustar A subject with a definite article If the subject is singular, the verb is conjugated in the 3rd person singular form If what is pleasing is plural, then the verb is conjugated in the 3rd person plural form Examples: Me gusta bailar . Nos gustan los libros . Verbs Like Gustar Me Nos Te Le Les Indirect Object Pronouns

Preterite:

Preterite -é - amos - aste -ó - aron - ar Verbs - í - imos - iste - ió - ieron - er / ir Verbs When translating verbs in the preterite form, drop the - ar , - er , or – ir ending and add one of the following endings.

Irregular Preterite:

Irregular Preterite Di/Vi Dimos / Vimos Diste / Viste Dio / Vio Dieron / Vieron Dar/ Ver Hice Hicimos Hiciste Hizo Hicieron Hacer Fui Fuimos Fuiste Fue Fueron Ir y Ser andar anduv - estar estuv- tener tuv- caber cup- haber hub- poder pud- poner pus- saber sup- hacer hic- querer quis- venir vin - -e -iste -o -imos -ieron The following preterite irregular verbs all follow a pattern. While their stems change, they all take the following endings. Endings:

Imperfecto:

Imperfecto - aba - abamos - abas - aba - aban - ar Verbs - ía - íamos - ías - ía - ían - er / ir Verbs When translating verbs in the imperfect form, drop the - ar , - er , or – ir ending and add one of the following endings.

Irregular Imperfect:

Irregular Imperfect veía veíamos veías veía veían era éramos eras era eran iba íbamos ibas iba iban Ser Ir Ver There are only three irregular verbs in the imperfect:

Preterite vs. Imperfect:

Preterite is used for the following situations: For actions that can be viewed as single events For actions that were repeated a specific number of times For actions that occurred during a specific period of time For actions that were part of a chain of events To state the beginning or the end of an action Preterite vs. Imperfect Imperfect is used for the following situations: For actions that were repeated habitually For actions that "set the stage" for another past action For telling time For stating one's age For mental states (usually) For physical sensations (usually) To describe the characteristics of people, things or conditions

Formal Commands:

For usted and ustedes form To give advice or orders How to form them: Conjugate the verb to the present “ yo ” form Drop the o Add the opposite ending For negative commands, the object pronoun comes before the command For affirmative commands, the object pronoun hooks onto the command and an accent is added to the third syllable from the end Formal Commands

Irregular Formal Commands:

T – Tenga ( tener ) V – Venga ( venir ) and Vea ( ver ) D – Diga ( decir ) and Dé ( dar ) I – Vaya ( ir ) S – Sea (ser) H – Haga ( hacer ) and Haya ( haber ) E – Esté ( estar ) S – Sepa (saber) Stem changes maintain their stem changes when forming formal commands -Car, -Gar, - Zar Examples: Sacar  saquen Jugar  juegue Almorzar  almuerce Irregular Formal Commands

Informal Tú Commands:

Positive commands: Present tense of the él / ella form Negative commands: For – ar verbs, add – es ( hablar  hablo  no hables ) For – er and – ir verbs, add –as ( prender  prendo  no prendas ) ( pedir  pido  no pidas ) Irregulars: Di/No Nigas ( decir ) Haz /No hagas ( hacer ) Ven /No vengas ( venir ) Ten/No tengas ( tener ) Pon /No pongas ( poner ) Sé /No seas (ser) Ve /No veas ( ver ) Sal/No salgas ( salir ) Informal T ú Commands

Nosotros Commands:

Used when the speaker suggests an action to be performed by a group of people he or she belongs to To form the subjunctive nosotros command, simply state the verb in the nosotros form of the present subjunctive Tomemos un taxi. (Let's take a taxi.) Comamos aquí . (Let's eat here.) For negative nosotros commands, there is only one form: the present subjunctive. Simply add a no, or other negative word, in front of the verb to make the command negative. No nademos . (Let’s not swim.) No salgamos . (Let’s not leave.) Nosotros Commands

Subjunctive in noun clauses:

The subjunctive is used mainly in multiple clause sentences which express will, influence, emotion, doubt, or denial. The present subjunctive is formed by dropping the –o from the yo form of the present indicative and adding the subjunctive endings. Subjunctive in noun clauses Hable Coma Escriba Hables Comas Escribas Hable Coma Escriba Hablemos Comamos Escribamos Habléis Com áis Escrib áis Hablen Coman Escriban

Irregular Subjunctive in noun clauses:

Verbs with irregular yo forms show that same regularity throughout the forms of the present subjunctive. Conocer  Conozca Decir  Diga Hacer  Haga Verbs that have stem changes in the present indicative also have them in the present subjunctive These 5 verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive Dar  d é , des, dé , demos deis , den Estar  est é , estés , esté , estemos , estéis , estén Ir  vaya , vayas , vaya , vayamos , vay áis , vayan Saber  sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sep áis, sepan Ser  sea, seas, sea, seamos, se áis, sean Irregular Subjunctive in noun clauses

Object Pronouns:

Direct and indirect pronouns precede the conjugated verb. When the verb is an infinitive construction, object pronouns may either be attached to the infinitive or placed before the conjugated verb When the verb is progressive, object pronouns may either be attached to the present participle or placed before the conjugated verb Object Pronouns

Double object pronouns:

The indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together Le and les change to se when they are used with lo, la, los, or las Double object pronouns Me Nos Te Os Le Les Me Nos Te Os Lo/la Los/ las Indirect Direct

Possessive adjectives and pronouns:

Possessive adjectives and pronouns míos /as mío/a tuyos /as tuyo/a suyos/as suyo/a nuestros /as nuestro /a vuestros/as vuestro /a suyos /as suyo/a Possessive adjectives (long forms) yo Subject pronoun Singular Plural tú él ella Ud. ellos ellas Uds. my, (of) mine your (fam.) , (of) yours his, (of) his, its hers, (of) hers, its your (form.) our, (of) ours their, (of) theirs their, (of) theirs your (form. pl.) , (of) yours) your (fam. pl.) , (of) yours)

Possessive adjectives and pronouns cont.:

Possessive adjectives are used to express ownership or possession. Unlike English, Spanish has 2 types of possessive adjectives: the short, or unstressed, forms and the long, or stressed, forms. Both forms agree in gender and number with the object owned, and not with the owner. Because su (s) and suyo (s)/a(s) have multiple meanings, the construction (article) + (noun) + de + (subject pronoun) can be used to clarify meaning. Possessive adjectives and pronouns cont.

Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns:

Used to specify to which noun a speaker is referring. They precede the nouns they modify and agree in gender and number. There are 3 sets of demonstrative adjectives in Spanish. Forms of este are used to point out nouns that are close to the speaker and the listener. Forms of ese modify nouns that are not close to the speaker, though they may be close to the listener. Forms of aquel refer to nouns that are far away from both the speaker and the listener. Demonstrative pronouns are the same except they carry an accent mark on the stressed vowel Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns

Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns cont.:

este (this one - masculine) estos (these ones - masculine) esta (this one - feminine) estas (these ones - feminine) ese (that one - masculine) esos (those ones - masculine) esa (that one - feminine) esas (those ones - feminine) aquel (that one over there - masc.) aquellos (those ones over there - masc.) aquella (that one over there - fem.) aquellas (those ones over there - fem.) Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns cont.

Subjunctive in adverbial clauses:

When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something that is known to exist, the indicative is used. When the antecedent is uncertain or indefinite, the subjunctive is used. Example: Indicative: Tiene un esposo que la trata con respeto y comprension . Subjunctive: Quiere un esposo que la trate con respeto y comprension . Subjunctive in adverbial clauses

Reflexive verbs:

In a reflexive construction, the subject of the verb both performs and receives the action. Reflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns. Reflexive verbs Yo Me lavo Tu Te lavas Ud ./el/ ella Se lava Nosotros Now lavamos Vosotros Os lavais Uds ./ ellos / ellas Se lavan Lavarse – to wash (oneself)

Para vs. Por :

Para: destination, deadline or a specific time in the future, purpose or goal + (infinitive), purpose + (noun), recipient, comparison with others or opinion, employment Por : motion or a general location, duration of an action, reason or motive for an action, object of a search, means by which, exchange or substitution, unit of measure, agent (passive voice) Para vs. Por

To become: hacerse, ponerse, volverse, and llegar a ser:

All of these verbs mean to become Ponerse + (adjective) expresses a change in mental, emotional, or physical state that is generally not long-lasting Volverse + (adjective) expressed a radical mental or psychological change, Often conveys a gradual or irreversible change in character Hacerse can be followed by a noun or an adjective. Often implies a change that results from the subjects own efforts, such as changes in profession or social and political status Lllegar a ser may also be followed by a noun or an adjective. It indicates a change over time and doesn’t imply the subjects voluntary effort. To become: hacerse , ponerse , volverse , and llegar a ser