03 Building a Lifelong Learning Strategy in Jamaic

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Building a Lifelong Learning Strategy in Jamaica: 

Building a Lifelong Learning Strategy in Jamaica Presentation for Caribbean Lifelong Learning Forum 16 May 2006 Tom McArdle World Bank consultant Senior Director Planning & Project Development HEART Trust/National Training Agency, Jamaica


Background Partnership: World Bank and HEART Trust/NTA (Dr. Lorraine Blank) 2003 Process: Earlier Review of TVET (2001) Data Gathering and Interviews Business Survey Private Providers Survey Stakeholders “Way Forward” Workshop Focus: Post-Secondary Training Since Then: Lifelong Learning Task Force and Policy Development


Jamaica and the West Indies


Contrasts: “Two Jamaicas” High End Tourism vs. Urban & Rural Poverty


Population 2.6m Lower Middle Income GDP per cap US$2,820 Poverty 15% Interest Rate 17.7% Inflation 14% Unemployment 11.7% Female 16.4% Male 7.9% Services Economy High migration & remittances High inequality, Crime HDI #79 Jamaica at a Glance Tourism & Distribution Economy


Achievements and Commitments Achievements Over 90% Pre-primary Enrollment Universal Primary Universal lower Secondary Commitments Achieve Universal Upper Secondary Expand Tertiary Expand Skills Training/Upgrade Workforce


Why Emphasis on Lifelong Learning is Important School Leavers Almost 1 in 5 leave after Grade 9 Among Grade 11 school leavers 1 out of 3 don’t sit exams Of those who sit: 5 out of 10 fail English 6 out of 10 fail Mathematics


Why Emphasis on Lifelong Learning is Important? 75% of employed/unemployed have no vocational, technical or professional training 74% of first time job seekers have no vocational, technical or professional training


Why Emphasis on Lifelong Learning is Important? 60% of persons under 34 have no academic qualifications Over 75% of persons 35+ have no academic qualifications 20% of adults are illiterate and another 15% possess only basic literacy skills


Post Secondary Providers


LLL Enrolments Expanding 02-03 04-05 All Tertiary 28,700 50,376 All HEART 35,900 61,040 JAMAL (literacy) 11,400 11,219   76,000 122,635 HEART is J$3.2b of J$5.2b (61%) of public spending on training of US $84m/yr


Private Sector Involvement Significant at all levels of education and training Significant investments by employers (in-service upgrading and 3% HEART Tax) Private sector participation on boards and standards settings for HEART & NCTVET


Private Sector Involvement 90% of firms involved in training Mostly skill upgrading rather than compensating for deficiencies Training more likely for more educated workers 60% use training plans 50% do training needs analysis


National Training Agency Financing Regulating Operating QA Standards Development Accreditation Certification Financed by 3% Payroll Levy


Planning Financing Enabling Assuring Quality HEART Trust Institutions Private Sector Training Providers Secondary Schools NGO, Church and CBO Training Providers Special Needs Groups Training Providers Community Colleges Tertiary Institutions Training Firms Accredited Training Organisations (ATOs) Career Guidance Job Placement Training Needs Assessment Work-Based Training Assistance Trainer & Instructor Training Learning Materials Entrepreneurship Accreditation Certification Standards Development Assessment Development National Register What is the National Training Agency?


HEART Trust/NTA Financing 3% payroll levy + earnings + interest and grants finances: 10 Academies and Institutes: 28,000 served 16 Vocational Training Centres: 20,500 served >100 Community-Based Training projects: 9,400 served On-the-Job Training: 5,000 served, 1600 firms Productivity training: 80 firms, 20,000 workers/year continued…


HEART Trust/NTA Financing Instructor training and upgrading, and professional programmes: 3,800 served Training at 13 SDC and MOEYC facilities 14 Technical High Schools assisted (2,400) National Council for TVET (Standards, accreditation, certification, QA)


HEART Enrolment-Participation

Training Programs: 

Training Programs Four components of content: Skills training Educational & employability components Information Technology Entrepreneurship Core + Electives to customize

System Problems: 

System Problems Nearly half of applicants cannot pass admission test-limits access despite measures taken Limited uptake of CBT in schools and tertiary institutions, but growing Challenges with higher-level training Financing mechanisms favour lower-level training, $ assistance not needs-based. Weak absorption of graduates; low growth in jobs-signs of change now

HEART Partnerships: 

HEART Partnerships Team Jamaica Culinary Institute of America Caribbean Institute of Technology Alpart-bauxite industry apprenticeship UTech Technical High Schools Rationalisation of TVET in Secondary Schools Digital Design, CPEC, GTZ, IDB, UNICEF, UNDP, SRC, Heritage, CCCJ, Jamalco


HEART’s Mandate for 2005-2008 Increase participation to 100,000 per annum Certify one-half of workforce by 2008 Respond to investments in tourism and bauxite-alumina

National Qualification Framework: 

National Qualification Framework Unit competency standards like Australia and New Zealand Assessment tightly linked to standards Recognition of prior learning Pathways for recognition & progression: on-the-job, training programs, online learning, etc.


NQ Framework Higher levels possible based on buy-in by tertiary sector


New Features of the System Unit competency standards-modular delivery, assessment and certification “Learners” are assessed and certified on each competency Competencies accumulate into a National Qualification on a National Qualification Register Accredit training providers incl. firms Use of credits to enable articulation


New Features of the System Strengthened industry training lead groups producing more standards (about 300 titles) Firms working to become accredited training and/or assessment providers NCTVET role changing from assessment to quality assurance-assures quality of assessment Creates a broader market for training and certification services


Results so Far 2/3 of system on new framework Greater access to training system, and access to certification framework More flexible system System that can bridge secondary, “post-secondary” and tertiary education-more inclusive System beginning to produce more higher- level certifications, and Can better accommodate upgrading for existing workers, great increase last two years


Results so Far (271 % increase in participation)

Major Opportunities: 

Major Opportunities Large investments in new hotels, and bauxite alumina industry-wanting certified workers Work-based training: 330,000 workers say they have skills and some training but no certification Regional initiatives-CANTA

Articulation with Tertiary Education: Picking Low-Hanging Fruits: 

Articulation with Tertiary Education: Picking Low-Hanging Fruits Child Care Certificate 2 diploma programme I.T. diploma degree programme “Engineering” diploma degree Agriculture Certificate 2 diploma Multi skilled construction Certificate 2 degree in construction management Mutual benefits to providers & learners

Issues in Articulation with Tertiary Education: 

Issues in Articulation with Tertiary Education University Council of Jamaica Question of “terminal” qualifications Restrictions on vocational programs in community colleges Lack of understanding of CBT How to assess tertiary learners in NQF framework

Many Rivers to Cross: 

Low levels of basic education in the workforce and poor English Educational inequities put over half of school leavers at a serious disadvantage in access to LLL opportunities Financing of training is not needs-based Acceptance of a National Qualifications Framework (MOE, tertiary institutions) CXC Technical-Vocational subjects? Many Rivers to Cross

Many Rivers to Cross: 

Getting more firms to embrace standards-based concept and certification Re-orientation of citizenry to lifelong learning process Micro-business sector-how should training assist? Many Rivers to Cross

Many Rivers to Cross: 

How to balance the need for higher level training and tertiary-level training vs. demand for lower-level training aimed at the poor? Competition between social demand and economic demand Combining NCTVET and UCJ-National Qualifications Authority concept Many Rivers to Cross


Kevin Smith Mason for 5 years, no certification 3 units through assessment of prior learning + 5 units through On-the-Job training & assessment + 3 units through institutional training and assessment NVQ Flexible Pathways

The Promised Land: 

An investment-attractive workforce High skill—High wage jobs Meeting the aspirations of the people Restoring dignity to working life Recognizing multiple learning pathways Integrating the education and training system The Promised Land



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