The LEXICAL

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Topic “ The Lexical : Word & Morpheme “ Captain : Beny Indra Natan Nadeak Members : - Diana Hutabarat - Frida Siburian - Imelda Siburian Sofiatul Tanjung Lecturer : Dr. Didik Santoso , M.Pd University of Asahan (KISARAN - SUMUT)

THE LEXICAL : WORD AND MORPHEME:

THE LEXICAL : WORD AND MORPHEME

Part of lexical:

Part of lexical A morpheme Morpheme is a combination of sounds that have a meaning.  A morpheme does not necessarily have to be a word. ( http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/caneng/morpheme.htm ) A word Word is the smallest element that may be uttered in isolation with semantic or pragmatic content (with literal or practical meaning). ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/word_definition )

The definition of lexical :

The definition of lexical A lexical is the type expected from a request for definition, and it is generally expected that such a definition will be stated as simply as possible in order to convey information to the widest audience. ( http :// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexical_definition )

Kinds of morpheme:

Free morpheme : a morpheme that can stand alone as a word without another morpheme.  It does not need anything attached to it to make a word. Cat is a free morpheme. B ound morpheme : a sound or a combination of sounds that cannot stand alone as a word.  The s in cats is a bound morpheme, and it does not have any meaning without the free morpheme cat . I nflectional morpheme : this morpheme can only be a suffix.  The s in cats is an inflectional morpheme.  An  inflectional morpheme creates a change in the function of the word. D erivational morpheme : this type of morpheme changes the meaning of the word or the part of speech or both.  Derivational morphemes often create new words. Kinds of morpheme

Part Of Speech:

Part Of Speech Noun Noun is a member of a large, open lexical category whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition (or put more simply, a noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing or abstract idea ).

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Pronoun Pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun (or noun phrase), such as, in English, the words it (substituting for the name of a certain object) and she (substituting for the name of a person ). Pronoun Determiner Personal (1st/2nd) we we Scotsmen Possessive ours our freedom Demonstrative this this gentleman Indefinite some some frogs Interrogative who which option

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Verb Verb is a word (part of speech) that in synatax conveys an action ( bring , read , walk , run , learn ), an occurrence ( happen , become ), or a state of being ( be , exist , stand ). Part of verb: Avalent ( valency = 0): the verb has neither a subject nor an object. Zero valency does not occur in English; in some languages such as Mandarin Chinese , weather verbs like snow(s) take no subject or object. Intransitive ( valency = 1, monovalent ): the verb only has a subject . For example: "he runs", "it falls". Transitive ( valency = 2, divalent): the verb has a subject and a direct object . For example: "she eats fish", "we hunt nothing". Ditransitive ( valency = 3, trivalent): the verb has a subject, a direct object, and an indirect object. For example: "He gives her a flower."

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Preposition Prepositions are a grammatically distinct class of words whose most central members characteristically express spatial relations (such as the English words in , under , toward ) or serve to mark various syntactic functions and semantic roles (such as the English words of , for ). Ex amples illustrate some uses of English prepositional phrases: as a modifier to a verb sleep throughout the winter as a modifier to a noun the weather in May as a modifier of an adjective happy for them as the complement of a verb insist on staying home as the complement of a noun a thirst for revenge as the complement of an adjective or adverb attentive to their needs as the complement of another preposition until after supper

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Interjection An interjection or exclamation is a word used to express an emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker (although most interjections have clear definition). Filled pauses such as uh , er , um are also considered interjections. Interjections are typically placed at the beginning of a sentence . Examples: " attention !“," here !“," shame ...“," disgusting !“," Gah , there's nothing to do !“," what a relief !“," quiet !“," Excuse me!", "Sorry!", "No thank you!", "Oh dear!", "Hey that's mine!"

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Conjunctions The set of adpositions overlaps with the set of subordinating conjunctions (or complementizers ): (preposition) before / after / since the end of the summer (conjunction) before / after / since the summer ended (preposition) It looks like another rainy day (conjunction) It looks like it's going to rain again today All of these words can be treated as prepositions if we extend the definition to allow clausal complements. This treatment could be extended further to conjunctions that are never used as ordinary prepositions: unless they surrender, although time is almost up, while you were on the phone

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Adverb An adverb is a part of speech that changes the meaning of verbs or any part of speech other than nouns (modifiers of nouns are primarily adjectives and determiners). Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences, and other adverbs.

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Adjective adjective is a 'describing' word; the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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