AP WORLD FINAL REVIEW

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A review designed to help those taking the AP World Exam

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AP WORLD REVIEW:

AP WORLD REVIEW BY NATALYA

Credit to:

Credit to I used AP World History Crash Course by Jay P. Harmon to create this Powerpoint

Memorize.:

Memorize.

PERIOD 1:

PERIOD 1 THIS IS GONNA BE A REALLY SHORT SECTION SORRY

THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION:

THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION AKA the A gricultural Revolution Mesopotamia, Shang, Chavin , Andean, Olmec Domestication of animals Disease Permanent shelters Food production increases Bronze and iron Specialization of labor Writing systems Dictatorships

ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS:

ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Pastoralists Patriarchy The Epic of Gilgamesh (Mesopotamia) and Rig Veda (Indus Valley) and Book of the Dead (Egypt) explored ?’s about death

RELIGION:

RELIGION Judaism Hinduism- India Caste system If you're lower class you screwed up in your last life Reincarnation Zoroastrianism in Central Asia

Period 2:

Period 2 ORGANIZATION AND REORGANIZATION OF HUMAN SOCIETIES 600BCE-600CE

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE) :

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE) Middle East (SOUTHWEST ASIA) Persians (too large, A. the G.) Parthians (left over from the Persians) China (EAST ASIA) Warring States Period (500BCE-220BCE) Qin Dynasty (mandate of heaven, legalism) Han Dynasty (same time as Roman empire, silk roads, had best tech. in world, began GW of C, dug canal from North to South China) While Hun declined, many converted to Buddhism

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE) :

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE) India (SOUTH ASIA) Mauryan (Buddhism, Ashoka ) Gupta (invented “0”, medical stuff) The Mediterranean Phoenicians (baby burners; alphabet; colonies in Greece, Italy, North Africa, Spain; luxury goods- p urple dye; Greeks adopted their coins and alphabet; Beaten by the Romans) Phoenicians surrounded the Mediterranean

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE) :

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE) Greek City states (democracy, A. the G. united city-states) Hellenism- the blending of Greek + Egyptian Culture; cultural syncretism Alexander the Great (A. the G.) and his empire led to Hellenism

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE):

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE) Roman Empire conquered Greece after A. of G.’s death; adopted Greek culture Roads, Christianity later, Uprising everywhere (like Gaul-aka France) Western half fell in 476 CE, eastern portion continued (Byzantine Empire in East. Mediterranean, centered in C onstantinople) Byzantine (Code of Justinian-legal system, more equal laws, basis of American law)

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE):

Classical Era (600BCE-600CE) MesoAmerica and Andean Civilizations Mayan Teotiuacan city-states Moche (Andes Mountains) Maya (writing system, ziggurats, astronomy, political and religious leader, human sacrifice) Teotihuacan (city-state, north of Maya, largest pop., beureacracy , apartments, pyramids, trade and war with Maya) Moche (in Peru, warrior-priests controlled, pyramids, human sacrifice, gold jewelry) Next door neighbors

COMMON FEAUTURES:

COMMON FEAUTURES Cities= the center of trade, art, and religion Alexandria, Carthage, Rome, Constantinople, Athens, Chang’an Similar social structure Slaves at bottom merchants, warriors, craftspeople political and religious elites Agriculture and other labor run by lower class Patriarchy

DECLINE AND FALL OF CLASSICAL EMPIRES:

DECLINE AND FALL OF CLASSICAL EMPIRES All empires overextended themselves Internal disruptions Disease, Peasant revolts, economy fails External disruptions Nomadic invaders (barbarians)- Huns, Goths, Vandals

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS 600BCE-600CE :

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS 600BCE-600CE For the first time: Communication between those thousands of miles away from each other Spread of: Goods Technology Religion Disease

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS :

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS Geography Different climate and topography= different minerals Different traveling conditions Silk Roads Silk, horses , spices, furs, perfume, furniture, rice, wool, tea , porcelain (china), ivory, cotton, camels, fruit, glass, gold, olive oil Qanat System underground irrigation Food could be grown in different places

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS :

The S ilk Road DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS :

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS Disease Black Death (bubonic plague) Get it from the fleas in rodents Led to fall of Han dynasty

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS :

Sahara Caravan Routes Mediterranean North African interexchange Included the Sahara desert Camels Made trade faster Islam exchanged DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION AND TRADE NETWORKS

Sea Networks (600BCE-600CE):

Sea Networks (600BCE-600CE) The Indian Ocean Trading Network Largest trading area until the late 1400s Connected Southeast Asia, China, Africa, South Asia, Middle East

Sea Networks (600BCE-600CE):

Indian Ocean Trade Spread Buddhism around Asia Muslim merchants and missionaries Silk, cotton, rice, spices, horses, ivory, gold, porcelain, and people Depended on currents and wind (monsoons) Dhows (Arab shipbuilding and navigation) Turks Greeks, Malays, and Russians also involved in this trade Sea Networks (600BCE-600CE)

Sea Networks (600BCE-600CE):

Dhow ship Sea Networks (600BCE-600CE) Triangle Sails- Arab invention

Mediterranean and Black Sea Trading Areas:

Mediterranean and Black Sea Trading Areas Egyptians and Phoenicians introduced it, continued by Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines Gold, ivory, salt, copper, and slaves Christianity and bubonic plague spread Constantinople= center of trade

EXCHANGING GOODS IN AMERICA:

EXCHANGING GOODS IN AMERICA Wheel hadn’t been developed yet- Europeans brought it with them Llama and alpaca in the Andes Dog pulled sleds in other parts of America Exchange of corn , pottery, jewelry, animal skin clothing Exchanges are short distance- between nearby villages Maya and Teotihuacan and Moche=lots of trade

PERIOD 3 :

PERIOD 3 REGIONAL AND TRANSREGIONAL INTERACTIONS 600CE-1450CE

EXPANSION OF NETWORKS OF EXCHANGE (600CE-1450CE):

EXPANSION OF NETWORKS OF EXCHANGE (600CE-1450CE) (600CE-1450CE )= POST-CLASSICAL ERA Spread of Islam Social, political, economic effects Rise of Tang and Song

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND TRADING PRACTICES :

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND TRADING PRACTICES Increase of cities Timbuktu in Africa, Byzantine, Chang’an, Venice, etc. Luxury and everyday items exchanged Gunpowder, paper, the compass, the astrolabe, and ISLAM Tang and Song actively supported trade by land and sea GOVERNMENTS DIDN ’ T INTERFERE WITH INDIAN OCEAN TRADE BEST DECISION EVER

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND TRADING PRACTICES :

Chinese emperors let merchants handle everything Capitalism- it worked out awesomely Printed money and coins (China and Mongols) Didn’t catch on in Europe till way later Grand Canal Project from Sui dynasty (581CE) to Mongol era (1200-1300s) Links China’s rivers from north to south TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND TRADING PRACTICES

Grand Canal:

Grand Canal

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND TRADING PRACTICES :

Byzantine and Mongols also had lots of trade routes TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND TRADING PRACTICES Byzantine Trade

RELGION, LANGUAGE, ENVIRONMENT CAUSED MIGRATION:

RELGION, LANGUAGE, ENVIRONMENT CAUSED MIGRATION Vikings raided England, France, Russia, Italy, and Byzantine Also known as the Normans Colonized North America, Russia, Northern France, Iceland, Greenland Christianity accepted after the fall of Rome Mongols in Central Asia with horses

RELGION, LANGUAGE, ENVIRONMENT CAUSED MIGRATION:

Syncretism Bantu-speakers migrated from Central Africa to East and Southeast Africa Knowledge of agriculture, herding, and metal smelting Bantu based languages Arab based languages spread to North America by Islamic merchants RELGION, LANGUAGE, ENVIRONMENT CAUSED MIGRATION

Bantu Migration:

Bantu Migration

CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTIONS INTENSIFY :

CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTIONS INTENSIFY Merchants established pockets of communities in other places Muslims, Chinese, and Christians spread Famous travelers recorded tales of their journeys Marco Polo went to China along the silk roads Ibn Battuta went through Afro- eurasia (from North Arica Mansu Musa (from West Africa- Timbuktu King with all the gold who ended up causing inflation) Chinese emperors welcomed them

Mansa Musa:

Mansa Musa http://www.schooltube.com/video/44bb47724a357aff94ec/Mansa-Musa-Ill-Tumble-4-Ya-by-Culture- Club I had too

FALL OF EMPIRES :

FALL OF EMPIRES Rome fell in 476 CE Byzantine rose Islam spread- Islamic nomad esp. Umayyad caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate Abbasids had Turkish Muslims; advances in t echnology and education Abbasid Caliphate

THE CRUSADES:

THE CRUSADES Muslim-Christian conflict over control of Southwest Asia As a result, Christians rediscovered the science, math, and philosophies from Classical civilizations (that Muslims had stored) Cause of Crusades- trade. Christians didn’t want Byzantine empire to be blocked by Muslims

CHINA’S DYNASTIES :

CHINA’S DYNASTIES Han Dynasty fell 220CE Sui didn’t last long Continued Great Wall and Great Canal Tang (618-907CE) Continued Great Wall and Great Canal Capital at Chang’an Rejected Buddhism, accepted Confucianism Huge pop. And advanced techn . (printing, gunpowder, compass) Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han Sui, Tang, Song Sui, Tang, Song Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic Mao Zedong, Deng Mao Zedong, Deng

JAPAN :

Sinification (or spread of Chinese culture) Buddhism= very popular; also confucianism Sinification occurred in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam Quicker-ripening rice in Vietnam spread JAPAN

THE MONGOLS :

THE MONGOLS 1200S- 1400S Pastoralists Genghis ( Chinggis ) Khan led them Conquered Song Dynasty Made Beijing their capital Allowed foreigners to administer gov’t. Khan’s grandson (Kublai Khan) started Yuan Dynasty Genghis looking swaggy

THE MONGOLS :

THE MONGOLS Mongols favored trade, took over Silk Roads Population drop during Mongol takeover Disease could have contributed Expanded and divided empire into sections Ivan the Great led successful revolt against Mongols in 1480 Mongols had largest empire ever, religious freedom, increased trade

MONGOLS AT THEIR HEIGHT:

MONGOLS AT THEIR HEIGHT

MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIANS IN AFRICA :

MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIANS IN AFRICA Sudanic States Exported salt, gold, and animal skins Timbuktu (trade) Ethiopia Christian Exported coffee

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY:

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY New crops and planting methods Horse collar, three field system, horseshoes Faster rice Increased food; population growth Exports increased in China, Persia, and India China: porcelain and silk Persia: rugs and Islamic art India: cotton

CITIES DECLINE AND THEN REVIVE:

CITIES DECLINE AND THEN REVIVE Cities declined when classical empires fell Civilians were attacked during wars Disease (Black Death) Revived over time in the post-classical era Trade increased (safer trade routes) More food Less attacks from nomads In Mesoamerica, Tenochtitlan was the largest city

OLD AND NEW TYPES OF LABOR :

OLD AND NEW TYPES OF LABOR Serfs, free peasants, nomadic pastoralists, and slaves are still the main forms of labor Public government projects (ex: build great wall of china) Coerced labor = forced labor Peasant revolts from time to time

CHANGES IN GENDER RELATIONS AND FAMILY LIFE:

CHANGES IN GENDER RELATIONS AND FAMILY LIFE Patriarchy Women’s status decreased in Tang and Song China Exception: Empress Wu (Tang dynasty)

PERIOD 4:

PERIOD 4 GLOBAL INTERACTIONS (1450 CE-1750CE)

EUROPEAN EXPLORATION EXPANDS :

EUROPEAN EXPLORATION EXPANDS What led to discovery of the Americas? Advances in ship design and navigation Asia invented most of this Desire to spread Christianity Competition against Muslims Wealth from trade Why not China? Zheng He was exploring in 1400s, but China told him to stop (it was too expensive, and “not worth it” Zheng He looking fine and fleek

AMERICA DISCOVERED :

AMERICA DISCOVERED Portugal got there first, then Spain Columbian exchange Global exchange for the very first time!! The Atlantic World

LATIN AMERICA AND THE ATLANTIC WORLD :

LATIN AMERICA AND THE ATLANTIC WORLD Latin America blended European, African, and Native American cultures Sugar plantations in Caribbean English, Dutch, France colonized Triangular Trade Mercantilism

CONTINUITIES IN THE GLOBAL NETWORKS OF EXCHANGE:

CONTINUITIES IN THE GLOBAL NETWORKS OF EXCHANGE Islam continued to spread into sub-Saharan, East and southeast Asia Hinduism still main religion in India Indian Ocean Trade Atlantic World Trade would surpass that Most people= subsistence farmers Bantu people built Great Zimbawe

NEW POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ELITE GROUPS :

NEW POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ELITE GROUPS Qing dynasty started by The Manchus Latin America social class Peninsulares = Hispanics born in S pain Creoles = Hispanics born in the colonies Mestizoes = Mixed race

EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS/ RELIGION:

EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS/ RELIGION In Europe, merchant class was full of wealth and respect In China, even if you are a wealthy merchant, you are low in social class Christianity (Catholic) spread to Latin America and Africa Mixed with African religions to create voodoo Martin Luther started protestant reformation Disagreed w/ Pope saying you get “pay your way to heaven”

EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS/ RELIGION:

Jesuits created (group of priests- “Army of the Pope”) Originally created to stop spread of protestants Brought math and science info to Chinese Scientific Revolution reduced faith, increased scientific explanations Peasant labor increased in Russia, India, China Slavery intensified Sugar plantations in Caribbean, Brazil, America EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS/ RELIGION

LABOR:

LABOR Encomienda and Mita Systems in Latin America Encomienda :Amerindians for labor Mita : Incan system required public work service Indentured servitude BTW that’s where the Inca were Encomienda : “Entrusts” Mita : “Forced Labor”

DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS:

DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS China Concerned with Russia and the Mongols Wanted to add land to separate China from Russia Didn’t force people they conquered to adopt Chinese practices; religious tolerant Limited pastoral herders

DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS:

Russia Ivan the Great pushed out the last of Mongol rulers Began conquest of Sibeia Peter the Great and Catherine the Great assed territories north of Black and Caspian seas Against Pastoralism Like China, required local peasants to do public service projects (ex: build roads) Religious toleration DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS

DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS:

Peter the Great and Catherine the Great expanded and modernized (Westernization) Built St. Petersburg Modernized military Said Russia as a European nation Loved immigrants, invited foreigners Still, serfdom and absolute monarchy continued DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS

DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS:

Colonies ran on the local level, not that dependent on the mother country This lead to America wanting to be independent England got a constitutional monarchy during the Glorious Revolution (1689) Pretty much everyone else has absolute monarchy DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS

DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS:

Ottoman Empire Reached its peak Defeated Byzantine Empire and took Constantinople (1453), renamed it Istanbul Didn’t require people to convert, but non- muslim families in Balkan region put their sons in the Turkish army Aka Janissaries; recruited through the Devshirme System Christians would willing hand kids over bc it moved them up so much in social class DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS

DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS:

Europe searched for alternate trade routes to the east bc they were threatened by Ottomans after Constantinople This led to discovery of ‘Merica DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENTS

NEW GOVERNMENTS IN ASIA AND EUROPE:

NEW GOVERNMENTS IN ASIA AND EUROPE Tokugawa Japan Europe took advantage of Japan’s Feudal system and lack of central government Traded with silver coins Christianity kinda failed to spread Tokugawa Shogunate centralized Japan Christians brutally persecuted Isolationizm

NEW GOVERNMENTS IN ASIA AND EUROPE:

Mughal India Muslims from Central Asia (supposed Mongol descendents ) Greatest ruler= Akbar Religious toleration to the 75% of the population that was Hindu Taj Mahal British reduced their size NEW GOVERNMENTS IN ASIA AND EUROPE

NEW GOVERNMENTS IN ASIA AND EUROPE:

The Netherlands Economically powerful Competition against Portugal and Spain Bank loans Shipping Little government interference w/ economy Dutch East India Company- took out Portuguese outposts in the Indian Ocean region Owned a few sugarcane plantations in Caribbean NEW GOVERNMENTS IN ASIA AND EUROPE

THE COLLAPSE OF EMPIRES:

THE COLLAPSE OF EMPIRES Aztec Bloody sacrifices Capital at Tenochtitlan Spanish conquistadors wanted their gold Crumbled Internal conflict Tributes= economic hardship

THE COLLAPSE OF EMPIRES:

Inca Everything owned by government Quipu - accounting system Internal Conflict Civil war for control of the throne Smallpox Emperor killed Empire collapsed THE COLLAPSE OF EMPIRES

THE COLLAPSE OF EMPIRES:

Byzantine After centuries of warfare with Muslims, it only had Constantinople left Defeat of Constantinople finished them off Hagia Sophia was mosque/ church Shows lending of Greek Orthodox and Islamic architecture THE COLLAPSE OF EMPIRES

PERIOD 5:

PERIOD 5 INDUSTRIALIZATION AND GLOBAL CONNECTIONS

INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS:

INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS Began in Western Europe (in Britain) In Britain, you could move up social ladder if you invented something cool Large # of metal workers Large # of people in city jobs Mechanization of t extile production The Steam Engine Fossil Fuels Steel The Cotton gin (USA) Railroads (Transcontinental RR in USA) First half of 1800s= Industrial Revolution

INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS:

Europe invested a ton into industrialization of Latin America,= built railroads India had cotton (owned by Britain) Russia freed surfs in 1850s and became top producer of steel; long railroads Middle class arose Women expected to marry and stay at home (Victorian) Women in the workforce (teachers, factory) INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS

INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS:

People moved from farm land to city work Pollution, loads of crime, overpopulation Impressionism: artists painted unfocused scenes of nature INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS

INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS:

Japanese factory girls wrote songs and poems about awful working conditions in Silk Factories Asian emmigration to USA and Latin America Transnational corporations- established international price of gold INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS

SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:

SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Second half of 1800s Steam to gas (gasoline/diesel) Cars Electrical systems Scientific discoveries Chemistry Grow food more efficiently Bombs Medicine Small pox and rabies vaccinations, Sterilization, anesthetics, clean water in cities Telegraph/ telephone Social Darwinism

WESTERN IMPERIALISM:

WESTERN IMPERIALISM Early imperialism in 1500s-1600s (settling America) 1700s-1800s= Imperialism of Africa and Asia Causes: The industrial revolution Nationalism Economics Wanted to control the world markets “The White Man’s Burden” Believed they were doing the black people a favor by conquering them (bringing them sanitation, technology, etc.) Spread Christianity to Sub-Saharan Africa, but couldn't spread it in the North (they were all Muslim)

IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA:

IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA Before the 1800s, Europeans couldn’t move south of the Sahara Desert 1650s: Dutch East India Company established a colony at Cape Town, South Africa Beginning of 1800s, Britain sent settlers into South Africa Dutch and British don ’ t get along 1830s: France does the same thing as Britain

IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA:

1880s: Belgium grabbed a huge area ( The C ongo) in Central Africa “Scramble for Africa” started Only 2 independent nations in Africa by the end of it all: Ethiopia and Liberia IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA

IMPERIALISM IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC:

IMPERIALISM IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC It was hard to colonize Asia Had relatively strong governments and armies Japan becoming a major power, Ottoman millitary = good, didn ’ t want to colonize China (economic reasons) France lost 7 years war (1763) England took Canada and eventually India Also Malaysia

THE USA, GERMANY, AND JAPAN BUILD EMPIRES:

THE USA, GERMANY, AND JAPAN BUILD EMPIRES 1803: Bought Louisiana territory from France 1840: got Texas and Pacific coast from Mexicans 1867: Bought Alaska from Russia Began to acquire Islands in the Pacific Spain declined as a world power when they lost the S panish- American War (1898-1901) Hawaii and Pearl Harbor

THE USA, GERMANY, AND JAPAN BUILD EMPIRES:

Germany has a few places in Africa and some South Pacific Islands Japan wanted so bad to be a powerful country Sino- Japanese war with China in 1890s Got Korea Defeated Russia in Russo-Japanese War of 1905 Everyone was shocked they won THE USA, GERMANY, AND JAPAN BUILD EMPIRES

RESULTS OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM:

RESULTS OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM Berlin Conference in 1885- Europeans divided Africa among themselves Social Darwinism “White D ominions” Colonies where white people outnumbered colored people (ex: Oceania, NA and Canadian colonies “Settler Colonies” Areas where Europeans were the minority South Africa, Singapore, Philippines, Algeria in North Africa

ASIA AND THE PACIFIC:

ASIA AND THE PACIFIC Britain had indirect control of Malaysia (local rulers) Sepoys - Indians forces loyal to the British Opium Wars

AFRICA AND ASIAN RESPONSES:

AFRICA AND ASIAN RESPONSES Either had total warfare of just kinda sucked it up Taiping and Boxer Rebellions in China Sepoy army rebelled Raj over India British battles Zulus and Dutch Boers in South Africa and Muslims in Sudan French

IDEAS FROM ENLIGHTENMENT CHANGE GOVERNMENT:

IDEAS FROM ENLIGHTENMENT CHANGE GOVERNMENT All men are created equal Voltaire and Rousseau Limited Governments Locke and Rousseau American revolution Got Republic French Revolution Attempted constitutional monarchy, tried Republic, then had Napoleon.

IDEAS FROM ENLIGHTENMENT CHANGE GOVERNMENT:

Haiti Revolution Slaves revolted against white French Masters Napolean sent an army in, but was defeated Latin America Haiti inspired Latin America Led by upper-class Creole elites Simon Bolivar One by one, Spanish colonies gained indep . Decline of Spain as world power IDEAS FROM ENLIGHTENMENT CHANGE GOVERNMENT

THE EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:

THE EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Over crowded cities Disease, scarce housing, unemployment Poor working conditions Low pay, dangerous, long hours 1 820s-1840s protests for better working conditions Karl Marx- “Communist Manifesto” Irish Famine Millions died, millions migrates to USA (NY)

NATIONALISM LEADS TO REVOLTS:

NATIONALISM LEADS TO REVOLTS “Europe in Flames” – everyone’s rebelling Greece broke away from the Ottomans Italy and Germany become nations in 1860s-1870s 1830s and 40s- France has another short-lived republic 1820s- Russia tries for a constitutional monarchy

NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA:

NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA Egypt is feeling all Nationalist-like French build the Suez Canal in 1860s (in Egypt) Who gets the economic benefits for it? England “helped” Egyptians run their country in 1880s- except they wouldn’t leave (until 1920s)

NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS IN ASIA:

British raj Indian National Congress wanted independence from Britain Egypt nationalist movement- independence from the outsiders that were “corrupting Islam” Spain and Portugal saw their empires fall because of successful independence movements in Latin America Rise of the USA Ottomans shrinking Lost Greece Attempt to westernize NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS IN ASIA

GLOBAL MIGRATIONS :

GLOBAL MIGRATIONS Causes PUSH FACTORS Overpopulation Faster and cheaper transportation Religious persecutions Famine Lack of Employment PULL FACTORS Urbanization Farm land Abolition of slavery Economic opportunity Political and religious freedom

GLOBAL MIGRATIONS :

Effects Some men went to Africa for work Women took on men’s jobs at home Resentment against migrants 1882- Chinese Exclusion Act 1901- White Australia Act Population shifts 2.5 mil left China or USA 50 million left Russia for Japan, Siberia, Central Asia 45 mil from South Asia to Southeast Asia GLOBAL MIGRATIONS

PERIOD 6:

PERIOD 6 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS AND CHANGES ACCELERATE (1900S-PRESENT)

SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENTS:

SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENTS Electrification of homes and businesses Telephone and transportation Radio/ TV Computers and the internet Cars Airplanes Space- race for space Medical technologies- life expectancy increased Fossil fuels/ nuclear energy

ENVIRONMENT:

ENVIRONMENT Population increase- most populated in South and E ast Asia Limit # of births- “one child policy” Green Revolution Fertilizers and pesticides so that food could be grown everywhere (famine-free world) Environmental concerns about GMOs and stuff Pollution

WAR, DISEASE, AND FAMINE:

WAR, DISEASE, AND FAMINE WWI introduced mass-production techniques Machine guns More people died WWII brought bombs Killed 60 million people died worldwide Influenza pandemic in 1918 Returning soldiers carried the disease home Killed 20 million HIV/AIDS Killed 25 million Reeeally bad in Africa (still to this day)

WAR, DISEASE, AND FAMINE:

Famine struck Europe after WWI 20 million deaths in Russian Civil war Gov’t policies of keeping food away from “enemies of the state” killed millions Stalin did this in 1930- killed 13 million Mao did this 1950’sish- killed 20 million Natural disasters in China, India, and East Africa WAR, DISEASE, AND FAMINE Stalin Mao

CAUSES OF WWI:

CAUSES OF WWI Imperialism Nations competing with each other for land Tension between each other Nationalism Pride in countries expressed through imperialism and weapons buildup Arms race Race to build cooler guns French built machine gun, Germans built a cool cannon

CAUSES OF WWI:

Alliance System The Great Powers formed 2 competing military alliances: Russia, England, and France = Triple Entente Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary = Triple Alliance Assassination of future Austria-Hungary Emperor The Great Powers reorganized after this dude died Russia, England, France, and Italy = The Allies Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottomans CAUSES OF WWI

WWI (1914-1918):

WWI (1914-1918) The allies had the advantage More military men; more factories; stronger navy Germany attacked Russia and France simultaneously, expecting a quick win Didn ’ t happen Fighting spread to Ottoman Empire and European colonies in Africa Total war- killed civilians too

WWI:

WWI Recruited African and Asian soldiers to fight India gave 1 million people to aid the British Germans and their African recruits battled Britain and France USA joined the Allies later on (in 1917) President Woodrow Wilson Wanted world peace; didn ’ t want to punish Germany Treaty of Versailles England and France punished Germany Germany now has an awful economy- loads of inflation Made Germany switch from const. monarchy to republic

WWI:

WWI Western Front Trenches

RESULTS OF WWI:

RESULTS OF WWI International treaties Five Power Treaty Limited # of battleships each nation could have Geneva conventions made rules for war Like how to you can treat P.O.W Kellogg-Briand Pact banned war Germany’s African and Middle Eastern colonies were given to England and France England and France were to “guide” the middle eastern colonies until they were ready for independence Basically meant England and France had new colonies

RESULTS OF WWI:

Russian, Austrian, Ottoman, and German Empires fell Austria divided into Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, and a few other nations Turkey established USA and Japan allied and economically powerful 1917: Russia’s czar’s gov’t failed Communism now Because Russia left WWI early, the Allies pretended Russia was never on their side and refused to give them a seat at Versailles RESULTS OF WWI

INTERMISSION:

INTERMISSION Brief intermission before we proceed to WWII

CAUSES OF WWII:

CAUSES OF WWII Unresolved issues from WWI Treaty of Versailles made Germany mad Adolf Hitler Great Depression started in 1929- shook economy Fascism introduced from Italy Gov’t attempted to control the economy with one single dictator Anyone considered “outside the fascist model” faced jail or deat h Nazism was Hitler’s version of fascism

CAUSES OF WWII:

CAUSES OF WWII Fascists wanted to conquer places for cheap labor and raw materials Fascists attacked their neighboring countries Germany invades Austria and Czechoslovakia Italy invaded North Africa and Ethiopia Japan also attacked its neighbors Invaded Manchuria and then China The League of Nations didn’t do anthing Kinda hoped Fascists would be happy with their small invasions and then stop

WWII:

WWII Two sets of alliances Germany, Italy, and Japan = The Axis England, France, and Poland = The Allies The allies grew in numbers as they were attacked by Axis nations USSR a Tanks and Airplanes nd USA joined the Allies Tanks and Airplanes Germany conquered France and most of Western Europe

THINGS GO BAD FOR THE GERMANS (AGAIN):

THINGS GO BAD FOR THE GERMANS (AGAIN) Russia and Germany had a peace treaty Then Hitler tried to invade Russia Got his butt kicked USA joins WWII after Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Russia fought with the Allies until the end of the war Allies slowly pushed the Axis back, starting with France (I’m so sorry for the excessive memes)

RESULTS OF WWII:

RESULTS OF WWII Nagazaki - introduction of atomic bombs UN replaced the League of Nations after WWII UN’s headquarters are in USA, not Europe Have military authority Western Europe’s reign as world’s strongest economic and political force ended They were beaten up from the wars Europe’s colonies slowly gained independence Dutch E ast Indies, Indochina, India, Ghana, etc.

RESULTS OF WWII/ COLD WAR:

RESULTS OF WWII/ COLD WAR 6 million Jews killed USA and Britain got UN to get the Jews their own state in Palestine Cold War started almost immediately after USSR=Soviet Union= communist nations NATO= USA and its allies

CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR:

CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR The Yalta Conference The USA, Britain, and USSR redrew the maps of Europe and Asia after the war Germany divided into Western and Soviet regions USS took control of most of eastern Europe Divided Korea into a communist north and Capitalist south USSR has nuclear weapons

FEATURES OF THE COLD WAR:

FEATURES OF THE COLD WAR USA led NATO and together tried to keep communism from spreading The Berlin Airlift 1946: USSR attempted to cut off Western access to Berlin USA and Britain airdropped supplies USSR just took the blockade down 1961: East Germany built the Berlin Wall

FEATURES OF THE COLD WAR:

The Marshall Plan USA spent billions to rebuild stuff in West Germany, England, France, and Japan Western Europe and Japan had booming economies by 1950 Nato vs. the Warsaw Pact Canada is Nato and so is Turkey btw The Warsaw Pact= USSR and and most eastern European nations Mao Zedong led communism into China in 1949 FEATURES OF THE COLD WAR

FEATURES OF THE COLD WAR:

The Korean War 1950: Communist North Korea invaded- pro-West South Korea UN sent soliders to help The Vietnam War French Indo China wanted independence Divided into four nations Communists and Capitalists fought for those regions Ho Chi Min led North Vietnam Defeated and absorbed South Vietnam (1975) Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 FEATURES OF THE COLD WAR

CONSEQUENCES OF THE COLD WAR:

CONSEQUENCES OF THE COLD WAR Cost Billions of dollars for the USA and USSR Nuclear Legacy Decline of Communism Their economy failed Dictators in Latin America replaced by democratic gov’ts EX: Argentina and Chile Continuity of dictatorships in Middle East EX: Saudi Arabia and Iran

DECOLONIZATION:

DECOLONIZATION Asia India 1947 Led by Ghandi Pakistan and Bangladesh Dutch East Indies and Indochina Indonesia in 1965 IndoChina = Laos, Cambodia, North and South Vietnam Hong Kong did not gain independence Peaceful Violent

DECOLONIZATION:

Africa Libya and Tunisia Ghana Angola Latin America Bahamas Guiana Some former colonies had economic success, others faced civil war Apartheid in South Africa DECOLONIZATION Aided by major powers (like the UN or USR or China) Violent Peaceful Peaceful

RUSSIA:

RUSSIA Vladimir Lenin led communists into a bloody civil war (Whites vs Reds) Communism won Established the USSR Lenin died shortly afterwards in 1924 Joseph Stalin took over Five Year Plans Killed farmers who refused to join his plan Had prison reduction camps

RUSSIA:

RUSSIA USSR rose as a global power 1985ish- Gorbachev took over and planned to reform the communism system Introduced limited capitalism Dissolution of the USSR Cold war ended Russia became a “capitalist-based democracy

REVOLUTIONS IN CHINA LEAD TO COMMUNIST RULE:

REVOLUTIONS IN CHINA LEAD TO COMMUNIST RULE Qing overthrown in 1911, replaced by Republic (with Sun Ya-sen ) He like Russia and the communists Died and was replaced by Kai-Shek Hated communists; pro nationalist Peasants like communists Japan invaded China in 1937 Mao Zedong took over Supported North Korea Communist Blamed Capitalists for everything Fought over territories with USSR

OTHER POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS:

OTHER POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS Mexico Allowed foreign interests to buy land after WWII Iran The shah (Western-backed emperor) put into power 1950 1979 shah replaced by a radical anti-Western Muslim leader- Ayatollah Khomeini Supported Al-Qaeda

REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS:

REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS European Union (EU) 1950s: 6 western countries that wanted to rcreate a common market to help compete against USA economy Single monetary unit (the euro) England isn't a part of this Booming economy in 1950s and 1960s NAFTA= free trade agreement among Noth American Countries

CHANGES:

CHANGES Global connection through international companies Olympics Universal Postal Union World Bank Multinational Corporations Human rights Universal Decoration of Human Rights Civil rights movements MLK Women’s rights Modernization of Catholic Church

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