8.Ethno Veternary Medicines

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Ethnovetrinary Medicinal plants By Allah Dad Khan Dated 17th November 2015 :

Ethnovetrinary Medicinal plants By Allah Dad Khan Dated 17 th November 2015

Ethnoveterinary knowledge :

Ethnoveterinary knowledge Ethnoveterinary medicine generally means the folks beliefs, knowledge skills, methods and practices. P ertaining to the health of animals. EVM play a vital role in rural areas as chief source of medicine being used to cure livestock.

Ethnoveterinary knowledge Contd :

Ethnoveterinary knowledge Contd EVM knowledge provides the traditional medicines of livestock that are cheaper than standard treatment and are easily accessible . EVM Plants are being used for medicinal purposes by local inhabitants since earliest times. It is a recognized fact that plants serve a potent medicine for curing various diseases

Ethnoveterinary knowledge contd:

Ethnoveterinary knowledge contd The use of ethno veterinary medicine presents a cheaper and sustainable alternative to synthetic medicines . Ethnoveterinary medicines are as older as the domestication of various animal species. These herbal preparations, drawing upon centuries of traditional belief and use, are in practice over time by pastoralists and farmers for the treatment of different diseases of livestock  

Ethnoveterinary knowledge contd:

Ethnoveterinary knowledge contd The majority of the rural population in Pakistan is dependent on medicinal plants for the treatment of their animals based on their traditional knowledge. The documentation of this knowledge is very much neglected in majority of the remote areas of Pakistan

Ethnoveterinary medicines and primary health care:

Ethnoveterinary medicines and primary health care EVM are used extensively and quite effectively for primary health care treatment to make domestic animals productive and healthy. The indigenous knowledge of the veterinary health care system acquired by traditional herbal healers is orally transformed from one generation to other . O ver centuries, people have developed their own system of keeping animals healthy and productive using age-old home remedies, surgical and manipulative techniques, husbandry strategies and associated magic religious practices . Indigenous practices play a crucial role in the livestock health care of traditional societies. However, due to changing socio-economic and cultural values of the traditional communities, the indigenous practices of livestock rearing is gradually declining.

Ethnoveterinary medicines:

Ethnoveterinary medicines The revitalization of these indigenous systems can provide self-reliance in primary health care and can even contribute to the frontiers of veterinary system of medicine .  There is an urgent need of a comprehensive analysis and documentation of indigenous knowledge of curing animal ailments Medicinal plants are being used for the treatment of various livestock ailments by the local peoples since earliest times. It is a recognized fact that plants are an important source of ethnoveterinary medicines . From the last decade, ethnoveterinary practices have gained tremendous importance due to the discovery of some effective ethnoveterinary products. Ethnoveterinary practices are more common in developing countries including Pakistan due to different socioeconomic factors

Pakistan Agriculture and Livestock :

Pakistan Agriculture and Livestock Pakistan is an agricultural country and upto 75 % of the population is dependent on agriculture and livestock . The significance of livestock can be guessed from the fact that Pakistan is the fifth largest milk producing country of the world. At present annual growth rate of meat and milk production in Pakistan is very slow due to poor forage quality, high incidence of diseases, poor prophylaxis, and high cost of modern veterinary drugs Majority of the Pakistani farmers own 4-5 numbers of livestock and it is very difficult for them to treat their animals with modern drugs due to high cost

Promotion of Ethnovetrinary medicine :

Promotion of Ethnovetrinary medicine  Most of these farmers cannot afford modern allopathic drugs due to financial constrains, which ultimately leads to poor livestock production and monetary losses due to poor health of animals. Under such conditions, ethnoveterinary medicine can be promoted as an alternative of modern drugs and it will help in poverty alleviation by empowering the people to make use of their own resources for healing of their livestock. Despite the advancement of pharmaceutical industry and development of clinical agents, traditional indigenous medicine is still practiced in rural areas for human and livestock ailments.

Ethnoveterinary medicine:

E thnoveterinary medicine Draw backs to modern veterinary practice include questionable quality of allopathic drugs. D evelopment of chemo-resistance in livestock and user unfriendly effects such as high antibiotic and hormone residues in the milk and other animal products . Ethnoveterinary medicine practice is used for the maintenance of good animal health in developing countries 

Traditional Knowledge :

Traditional Knowledge   Livestock farmers all over the Pakistan can draw on over 4000 years of knowledge and experience. Traditional veterinary medicine knowledge like all other traditional knowledge systems is handed down orally from generation to generation and it may disappear because of rapid socioeconomic, environmental and technological changes and as a result of the loss of cultural heritage under the guise of civilization . In order to conserve the traditional knowledge, the documentation through systematic studies is imperative before it is lost forever.

Traditional Knowledge Contd:

Traditional Knowledge Contd Most of the people live in the rural hilly areas and still depend on natural forest resources and traditional methodologies to cure different ailments of animals . Documentation was done in the region of Malakand valley . It was found that the valley has retained rich diversified flora. The valley elevation ranges from 1200 m to 2800 m above sea level

Traditional Knowledge contd:

Traditional Knowledge contd In most parts of the valley, the local populace rear cattle for their own aims execution like bull for plough, cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats give milk, butter, curd and meat . The inhabitants of this area use several plants for the treatment of various diseases in animals.

Traditional Knowledge contd:

Traditional Knowledge contd A total of 28 plants belonging to 23 families were documented. Two plants each of family Solanaceae , Alliaceae , Myrtaceae and Lamiaceae were commonly used Moreover, wild plants (68%) were mostly collected for livestock treatment followed by cultivated as well as wild (18%) and cultivated plants (14%)

Traditional Knowledge contd:

Traditional Knowledge contd Mostly the leaves (28%) of the plant were used by the local inhabitants for curing differ The most common ailments of livestock documented in study area were abdominal pain,  Charmaikh  and flatulence ent ailments of livestock. The most common ailments of livestock documented in study area were abdominal pain,  Charmaikh  and flatulence 

Traditional Knowledge contd:

Traditional Knowledge contd Accordingly,  Monotheca buxifolia , ranked first (most threatened);  Dalbergia sisso  and  Melia azedarach  ranked second;  Poenia emodi  ranked third Results also indicated that those multipurpose medicinal plant species are currently exploited more for fodder, fuel, construction and agricultural tools purposes than for their medicinal role.

Ethnovetrinary uses of medicinal plants :

Ethnovetrinary uses of medicinal plants Scientific Name Local Name Family Part Used Ethnovetrinary uses Acorus calamus  L Skhawaja Araceae Rhizome The powdered rhizome is used to increase body temperature of cattle and to overcome local disease name charmaikh . Allium cepa  L. Piaz Alliaceae Bulb Bulb is used to relief abdominal pain in all types of cattl Allium sativum  L. Oga Alliaceae Rhizome The crushed paste of rhizome mixed with flour is used to bring the cows in heat and to become pregnant. Ammi visnaga  (L.) Lam Sperky Apiaceae Fruits The fruits decoction is used for abdominal pain and to increase the body temperature ( charmaikh ). Brassica compestris L . Sharshum Brassicaceae Seeds (oil) The oil extracted from the seeds is used to overcome on flatulence. Malva neglecta Wall . Panerak Euphorbiaceae Leaves Crushed and boiled roots extract is used for the lowering of flatulence.

Ethnovetrinary uses of medicinal plants :

Ethnovetrinary uses of medicinal plants Scientific Name Local Name Family Part Used Ethnoveternary uses Melia azedarach  L. Shunday Meliaceae Leaves Leaves are rubbed on snake bite region to remove the venom while crushed bark is a useful remedy for flatulence. Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds . Wenalay Lamiaceae Roots Crushed roots are boiled in water and then given to cattle in case diarrhea and for low body temperature ( charmaikh Nicotiana rustica  L. Tamako Solanaceae Leaves The extract of leaves is externally rubbed on the body to remove the ticks and ectoparasites found in cattle. Paeonia emodi Wall.ex.Hook . Mamekh Paeoniaceae Roots Paste prepared from crushed tuber along with maize flour against internal injuries and to strengthen bulls Quercus balooth Griffith Zagwana Fagaceae Fruits The fruit are directly fed to the cattle for urinary tract diseases. Quercus balooth Griffith Zagwana Fagaceae Fruits The fruit are directly fed to the cattle for urinary tract diseases.

Ethnovetrinary uses of medicinal plants :

Ethnovetrinary uses of medicinal plants Moringa oleifora   Moringa Flowers, leaves and fruits are used as food. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts showed efficacy against certain worms  Nigella sativa Kala jiri Seed Seed extracts showed anthelmintic efficacy against  tapeworms and some  roundworms Piper longum Mirch Extract Crude powder and aqueous extracts administered orally to goats showed efficacy against gastrointestinal roundworms Punica granatum Annar Dried Rind Grinded dried rind of immature fruits fed to buffaloes showed efficacy against infections with  Schistosoma   spp Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary Leaves Grinded leaves are said to repel  fleas  and  ticks Zingiber officinale Adrak Rhizomes Vomiting Avena Sativa Aerial Parts Mastitis

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