Process validation

Category: Education

Presentation Description

An introduction to validation with emphasis on Process validation in pharmaceutical area.


Presentation Transcript

“Process validation” “SOLID DOSAGE FORMS”:


Process validation:

Process validation of specific process is Established documented evidence Which give high degree of assurance of Consistently & quality characteristics (At Pre-determined S pecifications )

systematic approach : :

systematic approach : identifying , measuring , evaluating , Documenting re-evaluating a series of critical steps in the manufacturing process that require contro l to ensure reproducible final product


basics: For assurance of product quality Selection of quality components and materials adequate product and process design control (statistical) of the process in-process testing.. end-product testing

FDA’s Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) 21CFR 211.110:

FDA’s Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) 21CFR 211.110 For avoiding Variability Controlling of monitor output validating process performance

quality control procedures steps : finished product testing :

quality control procedures steps : finished product testing 1.Establishment of * specifications *performance characteristics 2. For Specifications testing Selection of methodology , Equipment instrumentation 3 final product testing using validated analytical method testing methods

new addition:

new addition 4 Qualification processing facility and its equipment 5 Qualification and validation manufacturing process 6 Auditing, monitoring, sampling, or challenging the key for conformation of specification 7 Revalidation if significant change in process

Dr. Chao : four keys:

Dr . Chao : four keys 1 Definition - --desirable attributes & undesired 2 . Establishment of limitations or constraints for attributes 3 . Determination of the controls or testing parameters used for measuring or testing 4. Initiation of studies to establish control or boundary limits for key attributes that influence product , process, quality , performance

Reasons for validation programming:

Reasons for validation programming law to conform to CGMP regulations good business ( rejected or recalled batches) ensuring product uniformity , reproducibility , quality

recent trends::

recent trends: concentrated on validation of pharmaceutical processes & equipment processing variables affect quality of product .


VALIDATION OF RAW MATERIALS Validation begins with the raw materials , active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs ) excipients raw materials , major causes of product variation or deviation from specification API most uncontrollable component in the complete product/process validation scheme because morphology particle size/surface area not be completely defined this early Alao when synthesis of the new API is not finalized

raw materials & preformulation:

raw materials & preformulation At early exploratory phase preformulation program : rarely considered part of validation but represents critical steps in the development cycle

raw materials & its importance:

raw materials & its importance Chemical characteristics : drug impurities can affect the stability Physical properties : drug morphology, solubility & particle size/surface area may affects drug availability . The particle size, shape , and density can affect material flow and blend uniformity . The hygroscopic drug caring in handling the material and the reproducibility of the manufacturing process

Particle size & its effects:

Particle size & its effects water-insoluble drug milled or micronized for rapid dissolution & in-vitro availability Particle size directly alter processing variables. Eg flow, blend uniformity, granulation solution binder uptake, compressibility, & lubricant efficiency random distribution Segregation or sedimentation Stablity etc

Wet granulation / direct compression process variables:

Wet granulation / direct compression process variables Factors critical for uniform blending or (reproducible particle size distribution) or (content uniformity) compatibility issues with others particle size, density , and shape volume of granulating solution or binder fine particles v/s coarser particles particle size/surface area ratio must be considered. certification / validation of excipients (1%or 99%) is extremely important. and attributes Important are : ( 1) the grade and source of the excipients, ( 2) particle size and shape characteristics, (3) lot-to-lot variability . Eg mcc Magnesium stearate (lubricant) causes hydrophobic coating , so the disintegration and dissolution hindered aluminum lake in geometric addition or preblend approach ;if not as fine powder the mottling defects common there

steps for raw materials validation :CGMPs formal written documentation:

steps for raw materials validation :CGMPs formal written documentation Each raw material validated by testing at least 3 batches from primary & alternate supplier ; representing the ranges, both high and low . Depending on the susceptibility aging , physical, chemical , and/or microbiological stability should be assessed If under acceptable range , especially for materials sensitive to small changes; then appropriate to use several lots of raw material with low and high ends of the specification The final step of raw material validation should involve an on-site inspection of the vendor’s to review the manufacturing operations, controlling & conforming to regulatory requirements.

Analytical methoed of validation:

Analytical methoed of validation August 1994, the FDA memo direct for the certification of laboratories . Prior to any validation program analytical criteria must be assessed are Accuracy of method: true value Precision of method: estimate reproducibility Specificity: accurately measure a SPECIFIC analyte in the presence of other components . In - day/out - of - day variation: Between - operator variation Between - instrument variation Between - laboratory variation

development of analytical methoed:

development of analytical methoed cognizant of the laboratory conditions------ development of analytical method-----routinely run---- ensuring the validity & ruggedness- ----if less than optimum or if deficient ---- re-evaluation method----- modified ---- high accuracy , greater efficiency & high reproducibility- -- preferred if automated--- expertise training


EQUIPMENT / FACILITY VALIDATION product development originating from systematic approach to formulation , process manufacturing & analytical testing necessary for monitoring quality and reproducibility. Process equipment used in the development phase is assessed for modification or requirement of any facility ( under validation protocol ) for its suitability in large-scale manufacture wrt a lternative equipment in the area of:-- design qualification, Installation qualification , operation qualification, performance qualification, Maintenance (calibration , cleaning, and repair) qualification, closure qualification


continue: After decisions for new changes have been made, on approval of facility’s project manage r a validation commissioning document (VCD) is prepared by a validation specialist with shared responsibility & cooperation among owner, construction manager and vendors would include purchase orders, process flow diagrams, operation and maintenance manuals, installation requirements factory acceptance testing results , heating, ventilation , and air conditioning (HVAC) requirements and test results, calibration procedures, software specifications, and staff training . A newly evolve practice as a tool to aid ( but not be a substitute for validation ) for qualification of a facility to commission certain noncritical systems rather than to validate them.


CONTROL OF PROCESS VARIABLES Process validation :is for consistent Production ;by challenging a process during development to determine variables to be controlled (for as quality means & specification compliance ) credible data ( Pertinent data from preformulation stage & additional inputs during formulation ,evaluation , process development , and full-scale manufacture ) of the testing programs are evaluated for consistence as well as relevance (process pre-optimized) all four stages informations i.e. parameters is evaluated for its use as possible tools for ensuring product is under control

major steps in the development of a validation program:

major steps in the development of a validation program From using test data determine the numerical range of each parameter : Eg tablet hardness of batches achieved an acceptable friability, disintegration, and dissolution . for a given parameter ; Establishing specification limits of extremes of acceptable hardness (high and low) provide 95% assurance for the friability, disintegration, and dissolution specifications would be met. By challenging the process at extreme of the specification limit determination of how well specification control the process. Certifying testing equipment & Ensuring operating conditions (e.g., rpm , temperature, power utilization ) are within specification limits under variations of product load. After this samples are tested during the manufacture (in-process tests) or on the finished product (finished product tests )

In-Process Tests:

In-Process Tests 1.Moisture content of “dried granulation ( usually less than 2% moisture) 2.Granulation particle size distribution: content uniformity 3.Blend uniformity: content uniformity 4.Individual tablet/capsule weight: content &hardness 5.Tablet hardness: dissolution 6.Tablet thickness: hardness, uniform content & dissolution 7.Disintegration : hardness & dissolution

Finished Product Tests:

Finished Product Tests Appearance Assay : Content uniformity Tablet hardness Tablet friability : Dissolution key test parameters which are the major processing variables in solid dosage forms are evaluated------ Mixing time and speed in blenders and granulators Solvent addition rates in granulators Time, temperature, and airflow conditions in dryers and coaters Screen size, feed rate, and milling speed in mills Machine speed and compression force in tablet presses Machine speed and fill volume in encapsulators .


GUIDELINES FOR PROCESS VALIDATION : : SOLID DOSAGE FORMS (TABLETS ) Tablet Composition: Reason for each one with Solubility :: at physiological pH range: Particle size distribution and surface area: Morphology : True and bulk density : Material flow and compressibility: Hygroscopicity : Melting point :

Validation of new processes. (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, Delaware.):

Validation of new processes. (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington , Delaware.)

Validation of existing processes. (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, Delaware.):

Validation of existing processes. (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP , Wilmington, Delaware.)

Process Evaluation and Selection:

Process Evaluation and Selection 1. Mixing or Blending physical properties which are factors in creating a uniform mix or blend Bulk density Particle shape Particle size distribution Surface area Mixing or blending technique Diffusion (tumble) , convection ( planetaryor high intensity ), or pneumatic (fluid bed) techniques . Mixing or blending speed : Mixing or blending time : Equipment capacity/load : Drug uniformity : Excipient uniformity (color & lubricant):

2. Wet Granulation:

2. Wet Granulation Binder addition : Binder concentration: Amount of binder solution/granulating solvent: Binder solution/granulating solvent addition rate : Mixing time : Granulation end point : 3 . Wet Milling Equipment size and capacity : Screen size Mill speed Feed rate

4. Drying:

4. Drying Various drying technique used tray , fluid bed, microwaver Moisture content by: loss-on-drying techniques near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy Parameters affecting drying: Inlet/outlet temperature Airflow : Moisture uniformity Equipment capability/capacity :

5. Milling:

5. Milling 1.Mill type : impact or screen 2.Screen size : 3.Mill speed : 4.Feed rate :

6. Tablet Compression:

6. Tablet Compression Tooling : Compression speed : Compression/ejection force : in-process tests: Appearance Hardness Tablet weight Friability Disintegration Weight uniformity

7. Tablet Coating:

7. Tablet Coating coting improves the--- Stability Taste masking Controlled release Product identification Aesthetics Safety–material handling different techniques may used sugar , film , Compression

PowerPoint Presentation:

Key parameters : Tablet properties Equipment type : Coater load Pan speed : Spray guns : Application/spray rate : Tablet flow : Inlet/outlet temperature and airflow : Coating solution : Coating weight : Residual solvent level : Appearance testing of coating: Cracking or peeling Intagliation fill-in Surface roughness Color uniformity

Equipment Evaluation::

Equipment Evaluation: Selection: formulation, ? safety requirements,? handling/production efficiencies, and ? commercial demands.? 1. Mixer/granulator: types ? method of mixing? capable of providing low and/or high shear? mixing rate controle ? monitoring system? working load range and capacity? Way material charged and discharged? granulating fluid introduction facility? 2 . Blender: Types? positioning of the axis rotation (slant or horizontal)? working load range and capacity? Features automation , charging, discharging ? Sampling ease? dead spots (inefficient mixing areas )? easily cleaned ? heat the powder blend if needed?

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. Dryer operating principle? wet material be static (e.g., tray) or fluid (e.g., fluid bed)? working load range and capacity? heating range and airflow capabil?ities heat distribution? pulling a vacuum? handling different types of filter bags ? filter bag shaking mechanism ? 4. Mills mill type (e.g., impact or screen)? configuration of the mill? type or size hammers or pin/disc impeller position? size screens or plates? speed on the impeller/screen variable? throughput range? type of feed system? wet- and/or dry-mill materials ? generate a significant amount of heat? portable?

PowerPoint Presentation:

5. Tablet compressor: compression stations no.? operating range (rpm )? output range of the compressor? powder feeding capabilities? compression force range? monitoring compression and ejection force? Pre compression capabilities ? without routine maintenance running time? turnaround time for complete cleaning? automated weight control capability? require specialized tooling ,? perform a specialized function addition of? protect the operator and environment? 6. Tablet Coater: coater type (e.g., pan or fluid bed )? pan perforated ? accommodate different size pans ? working capacity range of the coater “variable drive” capability ? achieve proper tablet mixing? angle of the pan’s pitch? air input (volume and temperature) and vacuum drag-off? spray system utilize the equipment for various coating? modify the pan with the installation of baffles ? various solvents (ethanol ) require a specialized room condition ( e.g .,being explosion-proof)?


CAPSULES A. Capsule Composition: 1 . Capsule Shell: reason for the presence of each ingredient Justify the level and grade of each ingredient . selection of the capsule size and shape. need for capsule identification (e.g., color or imprinting). 2 . Capsule Shell Contents: Compatibility hygroscopic nature of the capsule formulation B. Process Evaluation and Selection

C. Encapsulation :

C. Encapsulation encapsulated materials have to be good flow properties, compressible and a consistent density . Factors to consider Encapsulation type Auger : Capsugel Type B or Elanco No. 8 Vacuum : Perry Vibratory : Osaka Dosing disk: H&K Dosator : MG2 or Zanasi type of technique Encapsulation speed : in-process tests Appearance Capsule weight Disintegration Weight uniformity

Equipment Evaluation of encapsulation:

Equipment Evaluation of encapsulation encapsulation mechanism (e.g., auger, dosing disk, dosator )? encapsulation stations? operating range of the unit ? output range of the encapsulator (i.e., capsules per min )? powder feeding capabilities? pecialized function in ad dition to basic encapsulation . ( e.g., tablet in capsules with excipient backfill )? equipment operate without routine maintenance? turnaround time for complete cleaning ? protect the operator and environment? automated weight control capability?

PowerPoint Presentation:


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