wool

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wool

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(WOOL) ANSHUL JAIN

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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from the hair of sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats , mohair from goats, vicuña , alpaca , and camel from animals in the camel family, and angora from rabbits . Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped , it is elastic , and it grows in staples ( clusters) . WOOL

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Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so that they stay together. Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have a greater bulk than other textiles. The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch. CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOL FIBRE Fleece of fine New Zealand Merino wool & combed wool top on a wool table.

Sheep shearing is the process by which the woollen fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four main categories: fleece (which makes up the vast bulk), broken, bellies, and locks. The quality of fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing, whereby a qualified person called a wool classer groups wools of similar gradings together to maximize the return for the farmer or sheep owner. :

Sheep shearing is the process by which the woollen fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four main categories: fleece (which makes up the vast bulk), broken, bellies, and locks. The quality of fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing , whereby a qualified person called a wool classer groups wools of similar gradings together to maximize the return for the farmer or sheep owner. SHEEP SHEARING Fine Merino shearing Lismore, Victoria

Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool" or "wool in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin, as well as dirt, dead skin, sweat residue, pesticide, and vegetable matter. Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of cleaning the greasy wool. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water, or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali, and specialized equipment. In commercial wool, vegetable matter is often removed by chemical carbonization. :

Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool" or "wool in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin , as well as dirt, dead skin, sweat residue, pesticide, and vegetable matter. Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of cleaning the greasy wool. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water, or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali , and specialized equipment. In commercial wool, vegetable matter is often removed by chemical carbonization . Scouring

The quality of wool is determined by the following factors, fiber diameter, crimp, yield, colour, and staple strength. Fiber diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining quality and price. Merino wool is typically 3-5 inches in length and is very fine (between 12-24 microns).The finest and most valuable wool comes from Merino hoggets. Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is typically more coarse, and has fibers that are 1.5 to 6 inches in length. Damage or breaks in the wool can occur if the sheep is stressed while it is growing its fleece, resulting in a thin spot where the fleece is likely to break. :

The quality of wool is determined by the following factors, fiber diameter, crimp, yield, colour, and staple strength. Fiber diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining quality and price. Merino wool is typically 3-5 inches in length and is very fine (between 12-24 microns ).The finest and most valuable wool comes from Merino hoggets. Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is typically more coarse, and has fibers that are 1.5 to 6 inches in length. Damage or breaks in the wool can occur if the sheep is stressed while it is growing its fleece, resulting in a thin spot where the fleece is likely to break. Various types and natural colours of wool, and a picture made from wool QUALITY

A man from Ramallah spinning wool. Hand tinted photograph from 1919, restored. Wool skirting and rolling in Australia, circa 1900 As the raw material has been readily available since the widespread domestication of sheep - and of goats, another major provider of wool - the use of felted or woven wool for clothing and other fabrics characterizes some of the earliest civilizations. Prior to invention of shears - probably in the Iron Age - the wool was plucked out by hand or by bronze combs. The oldest known European wool textile, ca. 1500 BCE, was preserved in a Danish bog. Wool fibers from wild goats found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia as far back 34,000 BCE suggest that wool fabrics were made even earlier than this :

A man from Ramallah spinning wool. Hand tinted photograph from 1919, restored. Wool skirting and rolling in Australia , circa 1900 As the raw material has been readily available since the widespread domestication of sheep - and of goats , another major provider of wool - the use of felted or woven wool for clothing and other fabrics characterizes some of the earliest civilizations. Prior to invention of shears - probably in the Iron Age - the wool was plucked out by hand or by bronze combs. The oldest known European wool textile, ca. 1500 BCE, was preserved in a Danish bog . Wool fibers from wild goats found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia as far back 34,000 BCE suggest that wool fabrics were made even earlier than this HISTORY

Global wool production is approximately 1.3 million tonnes per year, of which 60% goes into apparel. Australia is the leading producer of wool which is mostly from Merino sheep. New Zealand is the second-largest producer of wool, and the largest producer of crossbred wool. China is the third-largest producer of wool. Breeds such as Lincoln, Romney, Tukidale,Drysdale and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool from these sheep is usually used for making carpets. In the United States, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado have large commercial sheep flocks and their mainstay is the Rambouillet (or French Merino). There is also a thriving home-flock contingent of small-scale farmers who raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the hand spinning market. These small-scale farmers offer a wide selection of fleece. 1905 illustration of a Tibetan spinning wool. Global woolclip (total amount of wool shorn) 2004/2005  Australia: 25% of global woolclip (475 million kg greasy, 2004/2005)  China: 18%  New Zealand: 11%  Argentina: 3%  Turkey: 2%  Iran: 2%  United Kingdom: 2%  India: 2%  Sudan: 2%  South Africa: 1%  United States: 0.77% Organic wool is becoming more and more popular. This wool is very limited in supply and much of it comes from New Zealand and Australia.[27] It is becoming easier to find in clothing and other products, but these products often carry a higher price. Wool is environmentally preferable (as compared to petroleum-based Nylon or Polypropylene) as a material for carpets as well, in particular when combined with a natural binding and the use of formaldehyde-free glues. Animal rights groups have noted issues with the production of wool, such as Mulesing :

Global wool production is approximately 1.3 million tonnes per year, of which 60% goes into apparel. Australia is the leading producer of wool which is mostly from Merino sheep. New Zealand is the second-largest producer of wool, and the largest producer of crossbred wool. China is the third-largest producer of wool. Breeds such as Lincoln , Romney , Tukidale , Drysdale and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool from these sheep is usually used for making carpets . In the United States, Texas , New Mexico and Colorado have large commercial sheep flocks and their mainstay is the Rambouillet (or French Merino). There is also a thriving home-flock contingent of small-scale farmers who raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the hand spinning market. These small-scale farmers offer a wide selection of fleece. 1905 illustration of a Tibetan spinning wool. Global woolclip (total amount of wool shorn) 2004/2005 Australia : 25% of global woolclip (475 million kg greasy, 2004/2005) China : 18% New Zealand : 11% Argentina : 3% Turkey : 2% Iran : 2% United Kingdom : 2% India : 2% Sudan : 2% South Africa : 1% United States : 0.77% Organic wool is becoming more and more popular. This wool is very limited in supply and much of it comes from New Zealand and Australia. [27] It is becoming easier to find in clothing and other products, but these products often carry a higher price. Wool is environmentally preferable (as compared to petroleum-based Nylon or Polypropylene ) as a material for carpets as well, in particular when combined with a natural binding and the use of formaldehyde -free glues. Animal rights groups have noted issues with the production of wool, such as Mulesing PRODUCTION

In addition to clothing, wool has been used for blankets, horse rugs, saddle cloths, carpeting, felt, wool insulation (also see links) and upholstery. Wool felt covers piano hammers, and it is used to absorb odors and noise in heavy machinery and stereo speakers. Ancient Greeks lined their helmets with felt, and Roman legionnaires used breastplates made of wool felt. :

In addition to clothing , wool has been used for blankets, horse rugs, saddle cloths, carpeting , felt , wool insulation (also see links) and upholstery. Wool felt covers piano hammers, and it is used to absorb odors and noise in heavy machinery and stereo speakers. Ancient Greeks lined their helmets with felt, and Roman legionnaires used breastplates made of wool felt. USES

Virgin wool is wool spun for the first time. Shoddy or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and respinning the resulting fibers. As this process makes the wool fibers shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil, or another fiber such as cotton to increase the average fiber length. Such yarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp. This process was invented in the Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire and created a micro-economy in this area for many years. Ragg is a sturdy wool fiber made into yarn and used in many rugged applications like gloves. Worsted is a strong, long-staple, combed wool yarn with a hard surface. Woollen is a soft, short-staple, carded wool yarn typically used for knitting. In traditional weaving, woollen weft yarn (for softness and warmth) is frequently combined with a worsted warp yarn for strength on the loom :

Virgin wool is wool spun for the first time. Shoddy or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and respinning the resulting fibers. As this process makes the wool fibers shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil , or another fiber such as cotton to increase the average fiber length. Such yarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp . This process was invented in the Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire and created a micro-economy in this area for many years. Ragg is a sturdy wool fiber made into yarn and used in many rugged applications like gloves . Worsted is a strong, long-staple, combed wool yarn with a hard surface. Woollen is a soft, short- staple , carded wool yarn typically used for knitting. In traditional weaving, woollen weft yarn (for softness and warmth) is frequently combined with a worsted warp yarn for strength on the loom YARNS

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