power and politics

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0 Power and Politics

A Definition of Power:

1 A Definition of Power Power A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes Dependency Bs relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires

Contrasting Leadership and Power:

2 Contrasting Leadership and Power Leadership Focuses on goal achievement Requires goal compatibility with followers Focuses influence downward Power Used as a means for achieving goals Requires follower dependency Used to gain lateral and upward influence

Bases of Power: Formal Power:

3 Bases of Power: Formal Power Coercive Power A power base dependent on fear Reward Power Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable Formal Power Is established by an individual’s position in an organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information

Bases of Power: Formal Power:

4 Bases of Power: Formal Power Legitimate Power The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization

Bases of Power: Personal Power:

5 Bases of Power: Personal Power Expert Power Influence based on special skills or knowledge Referent Power Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits

Dependency: the key to power:

6 Dependency: the key to power What creates dependency? Importance Scarcity Nonsubstitutability

Power Tactics:

7 Power Tactics Influence Tactics Legitimacy Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Exchange Personal appeals Ingratiation Pressure Coalitions Power Tactics Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions Unequal power in the workplace –sexual harassment

Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Direction:

8 Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Direction E X H I B I T 14 –2 Upward Influence Downward Influence Lateral Influence Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Pressure Ingratiation Consultation Exchange Ingratiation Legitimacy Exchange Personal appeals Legitimacy Coalitions

Power in Groups: Coalitions:

9 Power in Groups: Coalitions Seek to maximize their size to attain influence Seek a broad and diverse constituency for support of their objectives Occur more frequently in organizations with high task and resource inter-dependencies Occur more frequently if tasks are standardized and routine Coalitions Clusters of individuals who temporarily come together to achieve a specific purpose

Politics: Power in Action:

10 Politics: Power in Action Political Behavior Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization Legitimate Political Behavior Normal everyday politics Illegitimate Political Behavior Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game

Factors that Influence Political Behaviors:

11 Factors that Influence Political Behaviors E X H I B I T 14-4

Employee Responses to Organizational Politics:

12 Employee Responses to Organizational Politics E X H I B I T 14-5

Defensive Behaviors:

13 Defensive Behaviors Avoiding Action Overconforming Buck passing Playing dumb Stretching Stalling Avoiding Blame Buffing-projecting image of competence Playing safe Justifying Scapegoating Misrepresenting Avoiding Change Prevention Self-protection

Impression Management (IM):

14 Impression Management (IM) IM Techniques Conformity Excuses Apologies Self-Promotion Flattery Favors Association Impression Management The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them

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