Egypt mosquitoes

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Mosquito vectors of diseases in Egypt

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Mosquito vectors of malaria and their control in Egypt:

Mosquito vectors of malaria and their control in Egypt By Mohammed Zaki Osman Senior Entomologist Research Institute of Medical Entomology Egypt

Mosquitoes of Egypt:

Mosquitoes of Egypt Egypt is in the north east of Africa. Through its lands runs the River Nile from south to the coast of Mediterranean Sea in the north providing life resources to its population.

Mosquitoes of Egypt:

Mosquitoes of Egypt The country can be divided according to its course into Nile delta, Nile valley in upper Egypt and Lake Nasser behind Aswan dam, the greatest man made lake, extending 350 km south to the borders and runs further 120 km in Sudan lands. Series of oasis are found in the western desert while Sinai peninsula is in the north east

Mosquitoes of Egypt:

Mosquitoes of Egypt Twelve species of Anopheles mosquitoes were reported to be found in Egypt. Five of them were found in few numbers and are restricted to Saini peninsula including: A.superpictus, A. rupicolus, A. d’thali, A.turkhudi and A.stephensi. Another six are more common species including A. pharoensis, A.sergenti, A. multicolor, A.coustani , A. algeriensis and A. tenebrosus.

Mosquitoes of Egypt:

Mosquitoes of Egypt The twelfth species recorded in Egypt is the most dangerous A.gambiae. It is not an indigenous species, however, it invaded upper Egypt from northern Sudan twice, in 1949 when it caused an epidemic of falciparum malaria that killed 180,000 people before its eradication and in 1950 when it was eradicated before reaching Aswan city.

Mosquitoes of Egypt:

Mosquitoes of Egypt Of all the common Anopheles species in Egypt only two species are malaria vectors: Anopheles pharoensis Anpheles sergenti

Mosquitoes of Egypt:

Mosquitoes of Egypt Anopheles pharoensis : This species is the main vector of malaria in Egypt Distribution: In Nile Delta, Nile valley in upper Egypt and Suez canal area. Breeding places: Rice fields and rice drains, fresh water pits, pools, swamps and along banks of the river with vegetation. Habits: Feeding on human (anthropophlic) and rest outside dwellings (exophilic). Seasonal prevalence: between May - October.

Mosquitoes of Egypt:

Mosquitoes of Egypt Anopheles sergenti Distribution: In Fayium, Sinai peninsula and the oasis in western desert. Breeding places: Grassy slow running water of drains and irrigation channels, also fresh water pools with water weeds. Habits: Feeding on human (anthropophlic) and rest inside dwellings (indophilic). Seasonal prevalence: between October - January.

Control methods:

Control methods Environmental methods Clearance of canals from weeds. Filling or drainage of pools or swamps. Proper and sanitary housing and proper selection of building areas. Personal protection by using windows screens and bed nets. Introducing strains of rice plant with short duration to reduce breeding sites.

Control methods:

Control methods Biological methods Larvivorous fish is used in vast water collections and farmers also taking advantage of breeding fish in their rice fields keeps larvae populations down. Pathogenic bacteria ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) is commercially available and used.

Control methods:

Control methods Chemical control Insecticides are still the principal means of obtaining rapid and maximum control of vectors especially during epidemics. Larvicides registered for mosquito control in Egypt include (OP) malathion, diazinon, pirimiphos methyl, temephos, fenitrothion, chorpyrifos methyl and (PY) deltamethrin.

Control methods:

Control methods Also (IGR) methoprene, diflubenzzuron and triflumuron. Recently a surfactant chemical is registered to be used as mono molecular film on water surface. Adulticides used as spray painting of surfaces include (OP) malathion, pirimiphos methyl, fenitrothion, chorpyrifos methyl and (PY) deltamethrin.

Control methods:

Control methods Adulticides for space spray as thermal fog and ultra low volume spray include (OP) malathion, fenitrothion and chorpyrifos methyl and (PY) deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, cyphenothrin, resmethrin, phenothrin and bioresmethrin.

Control methods:

Control methods Preventive measures Vigilant survey for mosquito larvae in breeding sites and adults in houses is routinely covering various parts of the country to call for control operations as density start to increase.

Control methods:

Control methods Preventive measures As Lake Nasser is connecting Sudan with Egypt careful and extensive measures are taken to keep the dangerous A.gambiae mosquito from invading the country, including spraying ships and vessels carrying goods and passengers before leaving the port in Sudan.

Control methods:

Control methods A cooperation protocol between the two countries was signed in 1961 to prevent the risk of A.gambiae mosquito invasion to Egypt. According to that protocol a common team is to survey the lake sides in both countries for larvae of that mosquito twice every year as well as applying control measure in breeding places and villages where the mosquito is found.

Insecticides resistance:

Insecticides resistance Before beginning a wide spread control programme against disease vectors resistance to insecticides used should be investigated. It is important to monitor resistance progress to assess its operational importance and evaluate and implement appropriate countermeasures. The simple suitable method is the “diagnostic concentration test for resistance” was recommended for general adoption by the WHO.

Insecticides resistance:

Insecticides resistance The resistance status of Anopheles pharoensis mosquitoes was evaluated to some insecticides using the diagnostic doses method in Fayium area in the western desert where the last malaria cases were spotted during the end of the nineties and the work was published in the journal of Egyptian society of parasitology, volume 31(1), 2001: 177-186.

Insecticides resistance:

Insecticides resistance The results of the work showed that A. pharoensis larvae were susceptible to all insecticides used except to fenitrothion to which they were resistant. Adult mosquitoes of that species were susceptible to all insecticides used.

Insecticides resistance:

Insecticides resistance Mortality percentage of larvae: Malathion (100 %) Temephos (97 %) Fenitrothion (73 %) Diazinon (100%) Cypermethrin (100%) Permethrin (100%) Deltamethrin (100%)

Insecticides resistance:

Insecticides resistance Mortality percentage of adults Malathion (100 %) Fenitrothion (100 %) Permethrin (100%) Deltamethrin (100%)

Thank You:

Thank You

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