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seminar on perception done by zumrouda and team


By: Deepti2107Nair (97 month(s) ago)


Presentation Transcript

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Identify the picture

what do you see? : 

what do you see?

what is perception? : 

what is perception? A process by which individual organise and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment.

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perception is an important factor in human behaviour Perceptions vary from person to person. Different people perceive different things about the same situation. But more than that, we assign different meanings to what we perceive. And the meanings might change for a certain person. One might change one's perspective or simply make things mean something else.

Definition of perception : 

Definition of perception "The perception is the process of becoming aware of situations,of adding meaningful associations to sensation" "Perception can be defined as the process of receiving,selecting,organising,interpreting,checking, and reacting to sensory stimuli or data".

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Receiving Stimuli (External & Internal) Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature, Location,Size,contrast, Movement,repetition,similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs,age,Interest, Organizing Figure Background , Perceptual Grouping ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity) Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior Perceptual Process Interpreting Attribution ,Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection

perception process : 

perception process selection of stimuli organisation of stimuli interpretation of stimuli

selection of stimuli : 

selection of stimuli selection is the first process in perception the process of filtering information received by our sense is called selecting stimuli. we are selecting the stimuli through our senses, like...

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Sight Sound

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taste smell touch

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External Nature Location Color Size Contrast Movement Repetition Internal Learning Inner needs Age difference Interest Ambivalance several factors are there which influence selective attention


ORGANISING organisation is the second stage in the perception process. which helps gain the perceiver’s attention. The stimuli received must be organized so as to assign some meaning to them. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perpetual organization. there are three dimentions to the perceptual organisation

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Field-ground differentiation The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background.

perceptual grouping : 

perceptual grouping Continuity Closure Proximity Similarity

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Perceptual constancy Perceptual constancy is one of the advanced forms of perceptual organization. According to this principle, individuals’ perception of certain elements in objects like size, shape, color, brightness, and location is constant and does not change from person to person. For instance, even though the picture of an apple is printed in black and white, we still perceive the color of the fruit as red. Perceptual constancy is enhanced by learning. Learning helps individuals perceive certain patterns of cues in a similar way and this leads to perceptual constancy.

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Perceptual Context The context of the situation also plays a major role in shaping the perception of individuals. Different contexts convey different meanings to people. For example, if a manager pats his twoyear-old son, it is considered a sign of love and affection. However, if he gives an employee a pat on the back, it is considered a sign of appreciation for the work done by the employee.

interpretation : 

interpretation after the selection and organising the stimuli has to interpret them in order to make a sensible meaning. perceiver cant draw any meaning without interpretation. it is a subjective and judgemental process. perceiver uses his assumption of people,things,object, and situation. he makes attributions,uses his judgemental skills distorts information,adds/delete information brings his own subjective feelings,opinion,and emotions,in interpreting and drawing the measures

interpreting : 

interpreting Attribution is the way in which people explain the causes for their own or others’ behavior. With the help of attribution, individuals try to understand the reasons behind the behavior of one another ,and also draw conclusions about the factors that influenced that behavior.

stereo typing : 

stereo typing Stereotyping refers to the generalization of the characteristics of all members belonging to a certain group. People judge others based on the perception they have about the group to which these individuals belong and do not consider the unique characteristics of the person in question. For instance, politicians are considered to be manipulative and corrupt. In the organizational context, stereotyping often takes place based upon gender, race,ethnicity, etc.

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The Halo Effect In the halo effect, the perceiver tends to judge a person depending upon a dominant trait which can be either positive or negative. The various traits could be intelligence, sociability,aggressiveness, etc. The halo effect is generally found in performance appraisal. Often appraisers rate the performance of employees based on one particular trait rather than by taking all aspects into consideration.

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Factors influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations Perception Factors in the Target Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity Factors in the situation Time Work Setting Social Setting

specific application in organisation : 

specific application in organisation 1) Employment Interview Evidences show that interviewers make perceptual judgments while interviewing candidates. These judgments are inaccurate. Different interviewers see different things in the same candidate. Interviewers get an impression about the candidate in the first four or five minutes and rarely change their view after that.

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2) Performance Expectations Individuals try to support their perceptions of reality, even when they are not appropriate. A good example of this is self-fulfilling prophecy. It is the tendency for someone’s expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations (Wilkins, 1973). Self fulfilling prophecy is of two types Pygmalion Effect: It is positive example of self-fulfilling prophecy. In this people who have high expectations from others improve their performance. Golem Effect: It is negative example of self-fulfilling prophecy. In this people who have low expectations from others lower their performance.

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Performance Evaluation An employee’s performance appraisal depends on the perceptual process. Appraisals can be both - objective and subjective. The perception of an evaluator about the characteristics or behavior of the employees, affect the result of the appraisal Employee Effort An individual’s future in the organization does not only depend on his performance. The evaluation of an individual’s effort is a subjective judgment which can be biased.

managing the perception : 

managing the perception

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