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MENTAL RETARDATION Mental Retardation is not a disease, it is a condition .

Mental retardation- :

Mental retardation- significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning limitations in 2 or more of applicable adaptive skill areas – communication, self care, home living, social skills. Community use, self direction, health, safety, functioning academics, leisure, work manifest before age 18

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MR is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors .

Signs and symptoms of M.R. : :

Signs and symptoms of M.R. : Both adults and children with mental retardation may also exhibit some or all of the following characteristics: Delay in oral language development Deficit in memory skills Difficulty learning social rules Difficulty with problem solving skills Delay in the development of adaptive behaviors such as self-help or self-care skills Lack of social inhibitors Children with mental retardation learn more slowly than a typical child.

Signs and symptoms of M.R. : :

Signs and symptoms of M.R. : Children may take longer to learn language, develop social skills, and take care of their personal needs, such as dressing or eating. Learning will take them longer, require more repetition, and skills may need to be adapted to their learning level. Nevertheless, virtually every child is able to learn, develop and become a participating member of the community

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Level of M.R Mild MR 50 – 55 IQ to less then 70 IQ Moderate MR 35 – 40 IQ to 50 – 55 IQ Severe MR 20 – 25 IQ to 35 – 55 IQ Profound MR Below 20 or 25 IQ

CLASSIFICATION of MR (educators system):

CLASSIFICATION of MR ( educators system) TERM IQ RANGE Educable M.R. 70 – 50 IQ Trainable M.R. 50 – 25 IQ Severely & Profoundly M.R. Below 25 IQ

Educational Implication:

Educational Implication Keep in mind characteristics Plan teaching programme Need based Daily living skills Mental age appropriate

Educational Implication:

Educational Implication Inclusion Quote an example TLM Bridge with experts Meeting with parents vocational

Educational Implication:

Educational Implication Co-ordination between teachers Patience Repetition Extra time Social intervention

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Peer attitude Peer teaching No EXTRA attention Action based Less expectation

Down’s Syndrome:

Down’s Syndrome


AUTISM A child with autism looks just like any other child, but has distinctive behaviour patterns.


Autism is recognizable in early childhood, it involves profound disturbances with 4 basic symptoms: social isolation, mental retardation, language problems, stereotyped ritualistic behaviours (lining up ones toys over and over again). do not like changes in their environment

Characteristics of Autism:

Characteristics of Autism severely incapacitating life long developmental disorder that typically occurs in the first three years of life It causes impairment or disturbance in three main areas Social skills, communicative (verbal as well as non-verbal) skills and in their repetitive and restricted behaviors abnormal responses to sensations abnormal ways of relating to people, objects and events in the environment 80% of those affected by autism are boys

What is a person with autism like? :

What is a person with autism like? may have a normal or high I.Q attend a regular school hold a job later in life difficulty expressing himself may not know how to mix with other people do not ever develop speech others may develop speech but still have difficulty using language to communicate


LEARNING DISABILITY Disability in one or more of basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using – language, Spoken or written manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, read or write or do mathematical calculation.

Common Types of Learning Disabilities:

Common Types of Learning Disabilities Dyslexia Difficulty processing language Problems reading, writing, spelling, speaking Dyscalculia Difficulty with math Problems doing math problems, understanding time, using money Dysgraphia Difficulty with writing Problems with handwriting, spelling, organizing ideas

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Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder) Difficulty with fine motor skills Problems with hand–eye coordination, balance, manual dexterity Auditory Processing Disorder Difficulty hearing differences between sounds Problems with reading, comprehension, language Visual Processing Disorder Difficulty interpreting visual information Problems with reading, math, maps, charts, symbols, pictures

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- :

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- dysfunction of central nervous system leading to problems in attention not focus on one task display behavioural problem along with poor academic performance impulsivity

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MR, LD & Autism are not curable, they can be improved

Thank You :

Thank You

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