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LABORATORY SAFETY For every laboratory, it is important to have safety lab procedures Each lab worker should be familiar with the safety procedures And these safety measures should be applied all the time

Factors contributing to laboratory accidents:

Factors contributing to laboratory accidents

These safety measures must include precautions against::

These safety measures must include precautions against:

Precautions against infections:

Precautions against infections Wear a protective clothing such as white coat in the laboratory Laboratory coats and clothing should be taken off before visiting libraly,toilet ,canteen, etc Do not smoke,eat or drink in the laboratory do not bites nails pencils,chew gum or lick gummed labels Do not sit on work benches


Cont.............. Do not stores food or drinks in the laboratory refrigerator Do not allow unauthorized person into the laboratory Wash hands with soap and water and before leaving laboratory or attending a patient Handle all specimens with care, handle all specimen as infectious


Cont............. Avoid spillage of specimens keep specimen tube in racks Wipe up spilt specimens immediately with cotton wool or gauze soaked in disinfectant from the container labelled ‘ SPILLAGE’ Place contaminated cotton woolor gauze in the container marked ‘incineration” Do not mouth pippete instead use rubber taets or pipet fillers

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Avoid accident al pricks with used needles,lancets etc Do not recap disposable needle after use To pick up sterile lancets or needles use a pair of forceps Cap infective fluids securely or plug with non-absorbant cotton wool before centrifuging

Precautions against chemical hazards:

Precautions against chemical hazards Do not mouth pippete chemicals and reagent use rubber teats,rubber bulbs or pippete fillers Wipe up water from the floor immediately after spillage Label all laboratory bottles and clearly to show -nature and strength of contents -date prepared safe


Cont... -appropriate safety warning ; eg poison, flammable , corrosive , read each label carefully before using any reagent do not taste unknown chemicals ,smell chemicals with caution recognize and understand the standard commercial warning signs that appears on labels eg toxic


Cont.. follow the manufacturers ‘ Instruction for safe storage of chemicals keep soln of 5% NaHCo3 and 1% acetic acid ready to neutralize any strong acid or alkali that may split large amount of water should be added immediately to any spillage of strong acid or alkali followed by 5%NaHCo3 for acid spillage or 1% acetic acid for alkali spillage


Cont.. always dilute conc acids by adding acid to water ; pour the conc acids slowly down the side of the vessel to prevent splashing never add water to acid why? Because the addition of small amount H2So4 is enough to produce suffient heat to break a glass container flush volatile liquids eg ether , acetone ,alcohols and xylene down the sink using plenty of water


Cont.. open windows to improve ventilation when using volatile chemicals or chemical with harmful fumes (fomalin, glacial acetic acid, organic solvent etc) keep volatile chemicals well stoppered in a cool place

Precautions against fire:

Precautions against fire tightly stopper all flammable chemicals when not in use keep flammable chemicals away from naked flames drain flammable liquids down the sink with plenty of water or discard into a pit latrine do not smoke in the lab extinguish open flames ( spirit lamp, stove, bunsen burner) when no longer required


Cont.. do not use an open flame against a background of direct sunlight as this makes the flame difficult to see do not use a kerosene stove or charcoal burner in the main working room handle hot objects with tongs or forceps ;do not handle hot objects with your hands set up emergency fire fighting measures outside the exist door of the laboratory;-

Cont... :

Cont... These include -sand bucket painted red labeled fire - fire extinguisher carbon dioxide type -fire blankets fire fighting appliances must be checked regularly by service agent to ensure they are in good working order all staff members must be familiar with the operation of fire fighting appliances

Precaution against electrical hazards. :

Precaution against electrical hazards. keep electrical equipment clean and dry away from any water sourses Regularly check the lead and other part of electrical equipment for wear Label faulty equipment and do not use again until propely repaired Do not overload electrical i.e avoid using adapters whenever possible

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Wire mains operated equipment correctly to a fussed plug All electrical equipment must be serviced by a qualified electrician Follow recommendat ion in the manufacturer’s handbook

Laboratory wastes disposal:

introduction Laboratory wastes disposal

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Safe, healthy & productive workplace environment Responsible and effectively handling o hazardous waste Good lab etiquette Municipal and government laws exist to regulate and control hazardous waste disposal

Waste management:

Waste management Manage waste responsible: Classification/ Characterizing hazardous waste Proper packaging Proper storage of waste Effective labeling Waste collection protocol in place

Types of waste :

Types of waste Normal Municipal waste (general) Recyclable waste Broken Glass Biological / Medical waste Chemical waste Sharps, Broken Glass Radioactive material waste Electronic and computer waste

Hazardous Waste:

Hazardous Waste Any waste that directly or indirectly represents a threat to human health or to the environment by introducing one or more of the following risks: Explosion or fire Transmission of Infections, pathogens, parasites Chemical instability, reactions or corrosion Acute or chronic toxicity Needle sticks injury

Wastes can be divided into three categories;:

Wastes can be divided into three categories; Infected sharp wastes(these includes needles,sugical instruments,lancets) Infected nonsharp wastes(left over blood,tissues,sputum) Non-infectious wastes

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Each wastes should be stored in the container corresponding to its coded colour -the color coding system aim at ensuring an immediate identification of the hazard --the color coding for health wastes are; COLOR YELLOW-safety box with sharp needles and syringe(needles,blades,broken glass,slides,slide cover,infusion bag,plastic bottle,big broken glass,lancets,scissors)

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COLORCODE –RED Wet infectious materials such as blood,body tissues,discharged body fluids,stool,sputum,placenta,catheter, blood bag

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COLOR CODE-BLACK food remains/BLUE -non-infectious materials,

Precaution for handling wastes:

Precaution for handling wastes Members of the lab should wash their hand after handling infectious wastes Handle all sharp and non-sharp wastes with care Each health care authority should ensure that all equipment are available and in good work Sharp infectious wastes are considered as the most hazadous and must be managed with uot most care

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Spillage should be immediately dealt with to avoid spread of infections and dangers

Packaging of the wastes:

Packaging of the wastes Place hazardous waste in sealable containers Containers must be kept closed. Do not leave a hazardous waste container with a funnel in it. Glass bottles with waste must be packed with vermiculite into bigger containers.

Labbeling of wastes:

Labbeling of wastes Must be labeled as HAZARDOUS WASTE Should be accurate, legible and fully explained Contain name of the department, lab group name, contact person details, content and concentration, hazard class, date Use Enviroserv /Sanumed self adhesive labels or your own. Waste vs. used No old label

Storage of wastes:

Storage of wastes Select the correct container (glass / polyethylene) for storage Use original containers if possible Use appropriate sized container Do not make containers too heavy to lift by the contractors Containers must be tightly sealed and not leak Containers correctly labeled Container compatible with chemical being stored -separate containers for each type of waste Do not store longer than 90 days


Cont................. The ideal storage facility shall be located within the hospital compuond close to the treatment unit and away from food storage or preparation area Organic wastes should be stored no longer than 2 days depending on the wastes and weather condition

Transportation of wastes:

Transportation of wastes Wastes should be moved in a designated trolley or wheelbarrow with the following specification -easy to push -painted with red colour and marked words HCW -should not be used for any other purpose -easy to load and unload

Waste disposal methods :

Waste disposal methods Wastes can be disposed in either of the following ways; By burrying By burning Incineration Using a sharp barrel and sharp pit

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