work measurement (1)

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INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Topic : Work Measurement

Work Measurement:

Work Measurement Work measurement can be defined as; The determination of the degree and quantity of labor in performing tasks. Work measurement (WM) is concerned with investigating, reducing and eliminating ineffective time, whatever may be the cause. Setting Labor Standards Evaluating performance Predict, Planning and Controlling Operation Reduction of Operation Cost

Performance Dimensions:

Performance Dimensions Managers generally consider two dimensions for measuring performance; 1) Quantity of Input: Managers generally consider the quantity of input to be the primary dimension of performance to be measured. In Manufacturing , Quantity is usually measured as pieces per time period. Example : A manufacturing company produced 100 pieces per hour In Servicing , Quantity is usually measured as service units per time period. Example : A bank might have a standard of 24 customer served per hour

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2) Quality of Input: The performance dimensions relating to the quality of input is secondary; Quality standards are often expressed as the percent of output units that are allowable defective units. Example : A manufacturing company may set standard by quality that 2% defective pieces is acceptable in the whole production.  There are two key points in determining dimensions of performance; The dimensions must be specified before the standard is set. The standard and subsequent actual performance must be measurable.

Work Measurement Techniques:

Work Measurement Techniques There are five basic techniques of work measurement as a time(work) dimensions. Ignoring formal work measurement Using the historical data approach Using the direct time study approach Using the predetermined time study approach Using the work sampling approach

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1) Ignoring formal work measurement: For many jobs in many organizations, especially in the labor-intensive service sector, formal labor standards are simply not set at all. Issue of a fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay is ignored. Workers often blamed for poor performance and inefficiency. Often because management has not established a work(time) standard, some informal standard is established by default. 2) Historical Data Approach: This method assume that past performance is normal performance. In the absence of other formal techniques, some manager use past performance as their main guide in setting standards

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3) Direct time study: It is also known as time study, stopwatch study, or clocking the job. Its procedure is as follow; Select the job to be timed by direct observation. Select a job cycle. Identify the elements and tasks that constitute a complete cycle. Time the job for all cycles and rate the worker. Worker behave differently while in their performances ( Common reactions are ability, capacity, nervousness, and slowing the work pace).To minimize these effects repeated study or study the job somewhere else is necessary. Compute the normal time based on the average cycle time and the worker ratings.

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Average cycle time= Sum of cycle time observed / Number of cycle observed Normal time= Average cycle time x Worker rating Determining the fraction of time available; Available fraction of time = 1 – allowance fraction Allowance fraction: The fraction of time lost on a job because of worker’s personal needs, fatigue, and other unavoidable delays. Set the performance standard time; Standard Time = Normal time / Available fraction of time

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4) Predetermined time study: For setting standards for jobs that are not currently being performed but are being planned, the predetermined time study is helpful. A work measurement technique that involves observing or thinking through a job, recording job elements, recording preestablished units, and calculating a performance standard. 5) Work Sampling: Working sampling is based on the simple random sampling that estimates the what proportion of a worker’s time is devoted to work activities. A work measurement technique that involves defining the state of “working”, observing the job over time, and computing the portion of time the worker is “working.” P = Number of observation during which working occurred / total number of observation

Introduction to the Organization:

Introduction to the Organization For the practical study we select the Joshan Walk Industries of Pakistan. Joshan Walk Industry is an Experienced and Dominant manufacturing company, exporting Cycling Gear, Baseball Batting Gloves, Weightlifting Gloves and Belts, Sports Gloves, Casual Gloves and Boxing Equipments to valuable.

Vision To be the global market leader in the manufacture of Gloves. Mission To be the global brand of choice among users of Gloves. :

Vision To be the global market leader in the manufacture of Gloves. Mission To be the global brand of choice among users of Gloves.

Work Measurement in Joshan Walk Industry:

Work Measurement in Joshan Walk Industry The Joshan Walk Industry uses its past historical data approach for Work measurement. For example according to the historical information the organization time consumed by the labor in different department as follow;

Cutting department: In cutting department first the leather cut into big pieces and then they follow the pattern to cut into smaller pieces in the shape of pairs. For example: A pair of boxing glove requires 15 minutes time. :

Cutting department: In cutting department first the leather cut into big pieces and then they follow the pattern to cut into smaller pieces in the shape of pairs. For example: A pair of boxing glove requires 15 minutes time.

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Stitching Department : In stitching department the pair is required 20 minutes and in a working day of 8 hours only one labor can produced 25 gloves .

Molding Fixing Department: In this department the boxing foam is filled inside the gloves. In this department the labor required 5 minutes per pair. Molding Stitching Department: In molding stitching department the Pair is again stitched after putting foam inside them. In this department the 5 minutes is required to stitch a pair. :

Molding Fixing Department: In this department the boxing foam is filled inside the gloves. In this department the labor required 5 minutes per pair. Molding Stitching Department : In molding stitching department the Pair is again stitched after putting foam inside them. In this department the 5 minutes is required to stitch a pair.

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Screen Printing department: In this department the Stamp is printed on the gloves and other brand name or logos and different design is added. This whole process on a pair of boxing glove is 2 minutes.

Inspection Department: After completion of glove above given process the inspection is necessary. In the inspection of a pair of glove it takes 5 minutes. :

Inspection Department: After completion of glove above given process the inspection is necessary. In the inspection of a pair of glove it takes 5 minutes.

Packing Department: After the pair is accepted by quality inspector the pair in packed in to the plastic packing sheet. For a pair of glove it requires 3 minutes. :

Packing Department: After the pair is accepted by quality inspector the pair in packed in to the plastic packing sheet. For a pair of glove it requires 3 minutes.

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In the Joshan Walk Industry the management also Using the the Direct Time Study Work Measurement technique for setting the standards time for a pair of glove completion. Example of Joshan Walk Industry; For setting a standard time the organization select a study on the 4 employees of the organization by direct observing the whole process of them by making a pair of glove.

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After observing their information are as follow; Workers Cutting time Stitching time Molding fixing Molding Stitching Screen Printing Inspection time Packing time Total time for a pair in minutes A 15 20 5 5 2 5 3 55 B 13 18 4 4 2 5 3 49 C 15 22 5 3 2 5 3 55 D 14 18 4 4 2 5 3 50

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After calculating the whole cycle time of different labor the average time is calculated and normal time is also calculated. Average time= Sum of all four labor time / No. of labor Average time= (55+49+55+50)minutes / 4 Average time= 52 minutes approximately Normal time= Average time x Worker ratings Normal time= 52 minutes x 100% Normal time=52 minutes After that allowance fraction time is calculated In the Joshan Walk Industry different fraction allowance are as follow.

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The Joshan walk industry assume according to historical information that the fraction allowance are 14% of the whole working day time. Non-work-related interruptions Personal needs (restroom breaks) Talking to co-workers about matters unrelated to work Lunch break Smoke break Namaz break Personal telephone call Work-related interruptions Machine breakdowns Waiting for materials or parts Receiving instructions from foreman Talking to co-workers about work-related matters Rest breaks for fatigue

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Then management calculate the average fraction of time Average fraction of time= 1 – Fraction allwance Average fraction of time= 1 – 14% Average fraction of time= 0.86 and last step of direct Time study approach the company calculate its standard time for production by that formula; Standard Time = Normal time / Available fraction of time Standard Time= 52 minutes / 0.86 Standard Time = 60 minutes(approximately) Hence the Joshan walk calculating its standard time of making a pair of gloves is almost 60 minutes and the standard time is calculated by the direct time study approach.

Merits: :

Merits: joshan walk industry have the capable management for making accurate standards through accurate work measurement. Work measurement also provides the performance of their worker workers. Through work measurement the company determine the time required to make a pair and it is useful for determining the wage rate and calculating incentives.

Demerits:

Demerits The company uses the historical data approach for work measurement which is considered poor standard. For the direct time study work measurement the company can not know the exactely the ratio of fraction allowance.

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Work measurement (WM) is concerned with investigating, reducing and eliminating ineffective time. The Joshan Walk Industry uses its past historical data approach for Work measurement. The Joshan walk industry assume according to historical information that the fraction allowance are 14% of the whole working day time. The joshan walk industry should used the computerized data measurement system. Conclusion & &

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