Diabetic Retinopathy : 1 Diabetic Retinopathy Slide 2: 2 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus is a syndrome characterized by sustained Hyperglycemia
IDDM - < 10%
NIDDM - > 90%
Diabetes is therefore one of the most serious challenges to health care world-wide. According to recent projections it will affect 239 million people by 2010- doubling in prevalence since 1994. Diabetes will affect 28 million in western Europe, 18.9 million in North America 138.2 million in Asia, 1.3 million in Australasia.
At least 14 million people in USA
50% are undiagnosed
13% Diabetes Mellitus
12% Glucose Intolerance
WHO Global Data - age group 30-64 years Slide 3: 3 PREVALENCE OF DIABETES IN AGE RANGE (30-64 Yrs) IN SELECTED POPULATIONS WORLDWIDE Epidemiology : 4 Epidemiology ( The World Health Organisation (1992) definition of blindness is vision less than 3/60 in the better eye with best available spectacle correction. )
Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of blindness amongst individuals of working-age ( 20-65 years). The prevalence of blindness due to DR in Western Communities is estimated as between 1.6-1.9/ 100,000 Slide 5: 5 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) Risk Factors
01. Duration of the Diabetes Mellitus
04. Renal Diseases
06. Age of onset of Diabetes Mellitus
14. High Myopia Presentation : 6 Presentation About 2% of type 2 diabetics have CSME at diagnosis and 10.2% have other signs of DR already present when their diabetes is discovered.
Mitchell and co- workers found that 15.8 % of undiagnosed diabetics in an elderly Australian population had signs of DR, according to the recent Blue Mountains Eye Study. Indeed it may often take from 9-12 years for type 2 diabetes to be diagnosed CLASSIFICATION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY : 7 CLASSIFICATION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY NON-PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (NPDR)
Mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Dot and blot haemorrhages
Hard ( intra-retinal ) exudates
Moderate-to-severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
The above lesions, usually with exacerbation, plus:
Venous beading and loops
Intraretinal micro vascular abnormalities ( IRMA ) Slide 8: 8 PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
Neovascularization of the retina, optic disc or iris
Fibrous tissue adherent to vitreous face of retina
Pre retinal haemorrhage
Clinically significant macular oedema (CSME )
Ischaemic Maculopathy CLASSIFICATION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY Slide 9: 9 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) Pathogenesis
1. Exact Cause not known
2. Micro vascular Occlusion
Thickening of basement membrane
Endothelial damage and proliferation
Deformation of RBCs - O2 Transport
Results in capillary non perfusion and retinal ischaemia, Arterio venous Shunts and Neo vascularization
3. Micro vascular Leakage
Loss of pericytes
Retinal Edema Pathogenesis of Diabetic Microangiopathy : 10 Pathogenesis of Diabetic Microangiopathy Hyperglycaemia causes-
non enzymaitc glycosylation
increased free radical activity
increased flux through the polyol pathway
Haemostatic abnormalities of the microcirculation-
It has also been postulated that platelet abnormalities in diabetics may contribute to diabetic retinopathy.
There are three steps in platelet coagulation: initial adhesion, secretion, and further aggregation. It has been shown that the platelets in diabetic patients are "stickier" than platelets of non-diabetics They secrete prostaglandins that cause other platelets to adhere to them (aggregation) and blockage of the vessel and endothelial damage. Microaneurysms : 11 Microaneurysms Retinal microaneurysms are focal dilatations of retinal capillaries, 10 to 100 microns in diameter, and appear as red dots. They are usually seen at the posterior pole, especially temporal to the fovea. They may apparently disappear whilst new lesions appear at the edge of areas of widening capillary non-perfusion. Microaneurysms are the first ophthalmoscopically detectable change in diabetic retinopathy.
Beginning as dilatations in areas in the capillary wall where pericytes are absent, microaneurysms are initially thin-walled. Later, endothelial cells proliferate and lay down layers of basement membrane material around themselves.
Fibrin and erythrocytes may accumulate within the aneurysm. Despite multiple layers of basement membrane, they are permeable to water and large molecules, allowing the accumulation of water and lipid in the retina. Since fluorescein passes easily through them, many more microaneurysms are usually seen on fluorescein angiography than are apparent on ophthalmoscopy Retinal Haemorrhages : 12 Retinal Haemorrhages When the wall of a capillary or microaneurysm is sufficiently weakened, it may rupture, giving rise to an intraretinal haemorrhage. If the hemorrhage is deep (i.e., in the inner nuclear layer or outer plexiform layer), it usually is round or oval ("dot or blot")
Dot haemorrhages appear as bright red dots and are the same size as large microaneurysms. Blot haemorrhages are larger lesions they are located within the mid retina and often within or surrounding areas of ischaemia. (1,4,)
If the hemorrhage is more superficial and in the nerve fiber layer, it takes a flame or splinter shape, which is indistinguishable from a hemorrhage seen in hypertensive retinopathy. They often absorb slowly after several weeks. Their presence strongly suggests the co-existence of systemic hypertension.
Diabetics with normal blood pressure may have multiple splinter haemorrhages. Nevertheless, when an ophthalmologist sees numerous splinter haemorrhages in a diabetic patient, the patient's blood pressure must be checked because a frequent complication of diabetes is systemic hypertension. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) : 13 Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) : 14 Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) Cotton Wool Spots : 15 Cotton Wool Spots Cotton wool spots result from occlusion of retinal pre-capillary arterioles supplying the nerve fibre layer with concomitant swelling of local nerve fibre axons. Also called "soft exudates" or "nerve fibre layer infarctions" they are white, fluffy lesions in the nerve fibre layer. Fluorescein angiography shows no capillary perfusion in the area of the soft exudate. They are very common in DR, especially if the patient is also hypertensive. Cotton Wool Spots : 16 Cotton Wool Spots Hard exudates ( Intra-retinal lipid exudates ) : 17 Hard exudates ( Intra-retinal lipid exudates ) Hard exudates ( Intra-retinal lipid exudates ) are yellow deposits of lipid and protein within the sensory retina. Accumulations of lipids leak from surrounding capillaries and microaneuryisms, they may form a circinate pattern. Hyperlipidaemia may correlate with the development of hard exudates. Hard exudates ( Intra-retinal lipid exudates ) : 18 Hard exudates ( Intra-retinal lipid exudates ) Accumulations of lipids leak from surrounding capillaries and microaneuryisms, they may form a circinate pattern. Late non proliferative changes : 19 Late non proliferative changes Intra-retinal microvascular abnormalities ( IRMA) are abnormal, dilated retinal capillaries or may represent intraretinal neovacularization which has not breached the internal limiting membrane of the retina.
They indicate severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy that may rapidly progress to proliferative retinopathy. Venous beading has an appearance resembling sausage-shaped dilatation of the retinal veins. It is another sign of severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Late non proliferative changes : 20 Late non proliferative changes CSME : 21 CSME Macular oedema is an important manifestation of DR because it is now the leading cause of legal blindness in diabetics. The intercellular fluid comes from leaking microaneurysms or from diffuse capillary leakage. It should be stressed however that current regimes now lay emphasis on the treatment of retinal thickening by grid laser than direct treatment of microaneuyrisms and other discreet lesions. Characteristics of Clinically Significant Macular Edema ( CSME ) : 22 Characteristics of Clinically Significant Macular Edema ( CSME ) The leading cause of visual loss amongst diabetics. Diagnosed by stereoscopic assessment of retinal thickening, usually by slit lamp biomicroscopy.
Laser grid photocoagulation reduces the risk of visual loss by 50% at 2 years
Defined as the presence of one or more of the following, (Modified Airlie -House Criteria )
Retinal oedema within 500 microns of the centre fovea.
Hard exudates within 500 microns of fovea if associated with adjacent retinal thickening
Retinal oedema that is one disc diameter or larger, any part of which is within one disc diameter of the centre of the fovea. CSME : 23 CSME CSME : 24 CSME Ischaemic Maculopathy : 25 Ischaemic Maculopathy Maculopathy in type 1 diabetics is often due to drop out of the perifoveal capillaries with non perfusion and the consequent development of an ischaemic maculopathy.
Enlargement of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) is frequently seen on fluorescein angiography. Ischaemic maculopathy is not uncommon in type 2 diabetics, maculopathy in this group may show both changes due to ischaemia but also retinal thickening. Ischaemic Maculopathy : 26 Ischaemic Maculopathy Proliferative diabetic retinopathy : 27 Proliferative diabetic retinopathy Retinal ischaemia due to widespread capillary non perfusion results in the production of vasoproliferative substances and to the development of neovascularization. Neovascularization can involve the retina, optic disc or the iris( rubeosis iridis).
Rubeosis iridis is a sign of severe proliferative disease, it may cause intractable glaucoma.
Bleeding from fragile new vessels involving the retina or optic disc can result in vitreous or retinal haemorrhage. Retinal damage can result from persistent vitreous haemorrhage.
Pre-retinal haemorrhages are often associated with retinal neovascularization, they may dramatically reduce vision within a few minutes. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy : 28 Proliferative diabetic retinopathy Proliferative diabetic retinopathy : 29 Proliferative diabetic retinopathy Proliferative diabetic retinopathy : 30 Proliferative diabetic retinopathy Late Disease : 31 Late Disease Contraction of associated fibrous tissue formed by proliferative disease tissue can result in deformation of the retina and tractional retinal detachment Late Complications : 32 Late Complications Late Disease : 33 Late Disease There are two types of diabetic retinal detachments: those caused by traction alone (nonrhegmatogenous) and those caused by traction and retinal break formation (rhegmatogenous)
Characteristics of nonrhegmatogenous detachment in PDR include the following:
The detached retina is usually confined to the posterior fundus and infrequently extends more than two thirds of the distance to the equator;
It has a taut and shiny surface;
It is concave toward the pupil;
There is no shifting of subretinal fluid. Slide 34: 34 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) Management
4. Early diagnosis / Fundus Flourescien Angiography
5. Tight Diabetic Control
6. Laser Treatment
8. Management of Advanced Diabetic Eye diseases Slide 35: 35 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR)
1. Awareness Campaign
Face to Face Communication
2. Education Campaign
Health Care Workers
3. Teaching & Training
Health Care Workers Slide 36: 36 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) Screening for DR
Prime motivation is the established efficacy of Laser Therapy
a. Undilated Ophthalmoscopy
b. Dilated Ophthalmoscopy
Sensitivity 80%, Specificity 99%
c. Non Mydriatic fundus photography
For Mass Screening
d. Stereo-Scopic fundus photography
Gold Standard for diagnosis
e. Computer Assisted Analysis for Fundus Photograph. Cost effective community screening for DR : 37 Cost effective community screening for DR The current consensus of opinion from Europe and the United States is that screening for DR by suitably trained and experienced practitioners is cost effective and results in reduced morbidity due to blindness.
An inter -disciplinary approach is commonly used, optometrists for example, are becoming increasingly involved in the care of diabetics.
The characteristics of a good screening programme being that the target patients in the community are found and seen at the prescribed intervals, and that the practitioners who conduct the screening have adequate training, that is they must be familiar with both the manifestations of diabetic eye disease and, if possible, with slit lamp biomicroscopy or with methods of photoscreening.
Patient education and growing community awareness concerning diabetes is likely to bring newly diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetics into the screening system. Slit Lamp Biomicroscopy : 38 Slit Lamp Biomicroscopy The direct ophthalmoscope enables adequate examination of only the posterior pole whilst the indirect ophthalmoscope provides insufficient magnification. Slit lamp examination ( using either indirect ophthalmoscopy with a convex aspheric lens or diagnostic contact lens) yields much more information by providing stereoscopic assessment of retinal thickening and proliferative retinopathy, particularly important when assessing possible retinal traction. It is therefore imperative to facilitate cost-effective screening that more practitioners are trained in slit lamp biomicroscopy of the fundus with emphasis on detection and monitoring of diabetic eye disease. Photoscreening : 39 Photoscreening An alternative to slit lamp bio microscopy is the photoscreening of diabetic patients with a fundus camera. Photoscreening is very popular in some parts of the United Kingdom and the USA - the physician or ophthalmologist subsequently examining the photographs for evidence of DR - this approach also obviates the need to be proficient with a slit lamp and also provides a permanent record of the contemporary status of DR. The camera can also be bought to remote rural areas and the pictures later examined.
Photoscreening will not always detect subtle signs of DR , such as retinal thickening, but a success rate of 80-92% in detecting DR is claimed by researchers. There are numerous photographic techniques used ranging from a single photograph to a 9 photograph collage. Three photographs spread across the posterior pole are now widely regarded as being most cost efficient. Slide 40: 40 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR)
Whom to Screen
DM type (I) after 5 Years
DM Type (II) Immediate after diagnosis
Pregnant Diabetic Woman
3. Annual Review but no referral
a. Normal Fundus
b. Mild Background DR (NPDR)
4. Routine referral to Ophthalmologist
a. Background DR with exudates and haemorrhages within the major temporal arcade.
b. Any patient with reduced visual acuity Slide 41: 41 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) Screening for DR
5. Early referral to Ophthalmologist
a. Background DR with exudates and haemorrhages within 1disc dia from fovea
b. Diabetic Maculopathy
c. Preproliferative DR
6. Urgent referral to Ophthalmologist
b. Pre-Retinal or Vitreous Haemorrhage
c. Rubeosis Iridis
d. Retinal Detachment Slide 42: 42 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) II - Timetable based on Retinopathy findings
Normal or rare microaneurysms Annually
Mild NPDR Every 09 Months
Moderate NPDR Every 06 Months
Severe NPDR Every 04 Months
CSME Every 02 - 04 Months
PDR Every 02 Months Pregnancy : 43 Pregnancy Diabetic retinopathy may worsen during pregnancy. Screening should therefore be undertaken at confirmation of pregnancy and every two months during pregnancy if no retinopathy is present, or monthly, if retinopathy is present.
Retinal status should not preclude pregnancy since contemporary methods of management can result in satisfactory ocular and pregnancy outcomes even in the presence of advanced diabetic microvascular disease providing sufficient care is taken Slide 44: 44 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) Indications for Coagulation
1. Severe NPDR
1. Laser Photocoagulation of Retinopathy
2. Treatment of Complications
Fibro vascular Proliferation
Vitreous Hemorrhages Slide 45: 45 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) Results of Treatment
4. Repeat Treatment Panretinal laser photocoagulation for proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy : 46 Panretinal laser photocoagulation for proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy The mainstay of treatment of diabetic retinopathy is retinal laser photocoagulation, an ablative treatment. Laser therapy is highly effective; the rate of severe visual loss at 2 years due to proliferative disease can be reduced by 60%.
Laser photocoagulation causes a retinal burn which is visible on fundoscopy. Retinal and optic disc neovascularization can regress with the use of retinal laser photocoagulation.
Rubeosis iridis requires urgent panretinal photocoagulation to prevent ocular pain and blindness from glaucoma. Panretinal laser photocoagulation : 47 Panretinal laser photocoagulation Iris Neovascularisation : 48 Iris Neovascularisation Panretinal laser photocoagulation for proliferative DR : 49 Panretinal laser photocoagulation for proliferative DR Macular laser grid therapy for CSME : 50 Macular laser grid therapy for CSME The indications for laser therapy now include CSME which is treated with a macular laser grid or treatment of focal lesions such as microaneuryisms. Early referral and detection of disease is important as treatment of maculopathy is far more successful if undertaken at an early stage of the disease process.
There is a reduction in the rate of loss of vision by 50% at 2 years with macular grid therapy.
Pregnant patients should undergo laser therapy if the usual indications are met. Technique of laser photocoagulation : 51 Technique of laser photocoagulation The technique of laser photocoagulation delivery involves the application of eye drops
(for pupil dilatation and corneal anaesthesia) and the application of an optical contact lens. Mild proliferative retinopathy is usually treated with at least 600 burns placed between the retinal equator and the retinal vascular arcades. A complete panretinal photocoagulation treatment requires at least 1500 burns. Complications of laser photocoagulation : 52 Complications of laser photocoagulation Retinal vein occlusion can follow inadvertent photocoagulation of a retinal vein. Rarely, there may be loss of central acuity from inadvertent photocoagulation of the fovea.
Vitreous haemorrhage can follow photocoagulation of retinal or choroidal vessels.
There may be visual field restriction, decreased contrast sensitivity, impaired night vision or impaired colour vision.
Visual field constriction may impair fitness to drive although ophthalmologists increasingly strive to avoid this most undesirable problem, for example by avoiding confluent laser burns. Complications of laser photocoagulation : 53 Complications of laser photocoagulation A recent study indicates that 88% of diabetics who have undergone laser photocoagulation would pass the Esterman binocular field test which is the legal criterion for fitness to drive in the United Kingdom, even if both eyes were treated. 42% of uniocular fields failed to make the criterion of a 120 degree horizontal field. Patients who have already lost the sight in one eye therefore have a significant chance of failing to meet legal parameters for fitness to drive in the United Kingdom.
Headache can sometimes follow laser therapy. The headache is usually relieved with rest and simple analgesia. Glaucoma must be excluded if the headache is severe or persistent General aspects of the ocular care of diabetics : 54 General aspects of the ocular care of diabetics Factors that can worsen diabetic retinopathy- and indeed the general prognosis of diabetes, include poor diabetic control, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, diabetic nephropathy, anaemia, pregnancy and cataract surgery Glycaemic control : 55 Glycaemic control It is now proven that good diabetic control may slow the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
For example, the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 1998 (UKPDS) followed 5,102 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics prospectively since 1977. Those diabetics who were intensively treated and achieved tight control with either insulin or sulphonylurea had diabetic endpoints 12% lower than less well controlled diabetics.
Overall there was a 25% reduction in microvascular end points in the group exhibiting good glycaemic control. Systemic hypertension and DR in type 2 diabetes : 56 Systemic hypertension and DR in type 2 diabetes Recent literature indicates that there is a striking correlation between the presence of systemic hypertension and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have delineated the role of treating associated hypertension and the slowing of the progress of DR. It is important to note that many type 2 diabetics will need a combination of anti-hypertensive agents to lower their blood pressure. Hypertension : 57 Hypertension Systemic hypertension and DR in type 2 diabetes : 58 Systemic hypertension and DR in type 2 diabetes The hypertension in diabetes study was launched within the original UKPDS study in 1987.
The study compared diabetics whose blood pressure was tightly controlled ( BP < 150/85)with ACE inhibitors and beta blockers with a cohort whose blood pressure was less tightly controlled. (BP <180/ 95 ) Median follow up was 8.4 years.
The reduction of macrovascular events was significant with a 32% reduction in diabetes related deaths. There was a 44% reduction in stroke and a 34% reduction in overall macrovascular disease.
UKPDS is a unique study in that it also looked at microvascular end points in type 2 diabetics. Overall the tight control group had a 37% reduction in microvascular disease, this was a more striking reduction than tight glycaemic control. Systemic hypertension and DR in type 2 diabetes : 59 Systemic hypertension and DR in type 2 diabetes This effect was manifested as a reduction of the risk of having to undergo laser photocoagulation by 34%.
The risk of reduction of visual acuity was lowered by 47%.
Atenolol and Captopril were equally effective in reducing the risk of progression of retinopathy in type 2 diabetics.
The Hypertension Optimal Treatment ( HOT ) study indicates that the lowest incidents of cardiac events occurs when blood pressure is lowered to 82.6 mmHg diastolic and 136 mmHg systolic. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Type 1 diabetes : 60 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Type 1 diabetes The EUCLID study is currently investigating the prophylactic treatment of type 1 diabetics with the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Lisinopril and the progression of nephropathy and other microvascular disease including DR . Preliminary reports are of a specific benefit are encouraging, with a claimed 50% reduction in progression of DR in type 1 diabetics.
The study did not look at maculopathy- so that implications are unclear for type 2 diabetics, although no specific advantage of ACE inhibitors (Captopril) over Atenolol was seen in UKPDS. Hyperlipidaemia and diabetic maculopathy : 61 Hyperlipidaemia and diabetic maculopathy There is evidence in the literature that diabetics who have exudative maculopathy with extensive lipid exudes benefit from active treatment of hyperlipidaemia Diabetic nephropathy : 62 Diabetic nephropathy Diabetic nephropathy accelerates the progression of retinopathy, especially macular oedema, inter alia via increased levels of fibrinogen and lipoprotein and associated hypertension.
The visual prognosis is often better if the nephropathy is treated by renal transplantation rather than by dialysis
Any anaemia resulting from renal disease must be aggressively treated.
Diabetic retinopathy is a common prelude to the development of renal disease. Pregnancy : 63 Pregnancy Pregnancy may accelerate the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Frequency of monitoring NPDR should therefore be increased.Women who begin a pregnancy with no retinopathy, the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy is about 10%.
Those with DR at the onset of pregnancy may show progression, with increased haemorrhages, soft exudates, and macular edema. There is no doubt that women who maintain good metabolic control during pregnancy have fewer spontaneous abortions and fewer children with birth defects.
Those with untreated PDR at the onset frequently do poorly unless they are treated with panretinal photocoagulation. Finally, patients with previously treated PDR often do not worsen during the pregnancy.
Women who begin pregnancy with poorly controlled diabetes and who are suddenly brought under strict control frequently have severe deterioration of their retinopathy and do not always recover after delivery Cataract surgery : 64 Cataract surgery Cataract surgery may lead to progression of pre-existing macular oedema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. However, cataracts may impede fundoscopy and therefore interfere with the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. If possible, diabetic retinopathy should be treated prior to cataract surgery Tightening Glycaemic control : 65 Tightening Glycaemic control Tightening of glycaemic control may initially produce worsening of retinopathy. The postulated mechanism includes lowering of retinal blood low or overproduction of IGF-1 by the liver.
It is therefore recommended that monitoring of retinopathy is increased if major changes to glycaemic control are made particularly in previously poorly controlled diabetics. Ideally glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) should be maintained below 7%. VITRECTOMY IN DIABETIC PATIENTS : 66 VITRECTOMY IN DIABETIC PATIENTS Vitrectomy, plays a vital role in the management of severe complications of diabetic retinopathy.
The major indications are nonclearing vitreous hemorrhage, traction retinal detachment, and combined traction/rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Less common indications are macular edema with a thickened and taut posterior hyaloid, macular heterotopia, and tight preretinal macular hemorrhage. Slide 67: 67 Thank you