Anatomy Introduction

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2 Welcome to Human Anatomy

Anatomy (= to cut open) : 

3 Anatomy (= to cut open) Gross Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy Developmental Anatomy (study of first 2 months of development: ) Systemic Anatomy


4 HUMAN ANATOMY Anatomy The study of the structure and function of the body—is one of the oldest basic medical sciences In this lesson we learn the very basic principles of this important subject. I hope you will like this subject as a beginner.

Approaches to studying Anatomy : 

5 Approaches to studying Anatomy We will begin with human gross anatomy-the examination of body structures the can be seen without a microscope. The three main approaches to studying anatomy are regional, systemic and clinical.


6 INTRODUCTION Remember these words, I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand

Overview : 

7 Overview Regional anatomy (topographical anatomy) is the method of studying the body by regions, such as the thorax and abdomen. surface anatomy is an essential part of the study of regional anatomy. Systemic anatomy is the method of studying the body by systems, for example, the circulatory and reproductive system. Clinical anatomy emphasizes structure and function as they relate to the practice of medicine and other health sciences. it incorporates the regional and systemic approaches to studying anatomy and stresses clinical applications.Endoscopic and imaging techniques (examination of the interior of the stomach) and demonstrates living anatomy

Anatomy & the Importance of a Precise Vocabulary : 

8 Anatomy & the Importance of a Precise Vocabulary

Human Anatomy Terminology : 

9 Human Anatomy Terminology The following terms are those which are used to identify the location of parts of the human body in medicine and academic study. These terms are often used to describe a specific portion of a structure or to compare the locations of two different structures. "The hand is distal to the forearm" or "the medial portion of the frontal bone contains the frontal sinus" are examples of this.

Terms of relationship and comparison : 

10 Terms of relationship and comparison Superior - toward the head Inferior - away from the head Anterior - the front of the body or body part Posterior - the back of the body or body part Medial - toward the midline that divides left and right Lateral - to the side away from the midline Proximal - closer to the attachment Distal - farther away from the attachment Anatomical position - standing erect, facing the observer, arms are at the sides with palms facing forward.

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Anatomical Planes : 

12 Anatomical Planes There are four imaginary planes to describe anatomy (median,sagittal,coronal, and horizontal) that pass through the body in anatomical position. Median plane-the vertical plane passing longitudinally through the body—dividing it into right and left halves. A plane near to median plane is paramedian plane. Sagittal planes-are vertical planes passing through the body parallel to the median plane. Coronal planes-are vertical planes passing through the body at right angles to the median planes, dividing it into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions. Horizontal (transverse) planes –are passing through the body at right angle to the median and coronal planes. A horizontal plane divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts.

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14 Dorsum refers to the superior or dorsal surface (back) of any part that protrudes anteriorly from the body, such as the dorsum of the tongue,penis, or foot. Ventral is equivalent to anterior. Palm refer to the flat of the hand, exclusive of thumb & fingers, and is the opposite of the dorsum of the hand. Rostral is often used instead of anterior when describing parts of the brain; it means towards to rostrum (beak or nose); however in human it denotes nearer the anterior part of the head (e.g. the frontal lobe of the brain is rostral to the cerebellum) Caudal pertains to the tail and it is useful directional term when referring to the tail region or the trunk---represented by the coccyx, the small bone at the inferior (caudal) end of vertebral column.

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17 Superficial (Latin superfacies; at the surface or face): near the outer surface of the organism. Thus, skin is superficial to the muscle layer. The opposite is "deep", or "visceral". Deep: further away from the surface of the organism. Thus, the muscular layer is deep to the skin, but superficial to the intestines. This is one of the few terms where the English vernacular is prevalent. The proper anglicised Latin term would be profound (Latin profundus; due to depth), but this word has other meanings in English. In other languages, the equivalent term is usually similar to "profound" (e.g. profond, meaning deep, in French). Intermediate (Latin intermedius; inter, between and medius, middle): between two other structures. Thus, the navel is intermediate to (or intermediate between) the left arm and the contralateral (right) leg.

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18 Visceral (Latin viscus; internal organs, flesh): associated with organs within the body's cavities. The stomach is a viscus within the abdominal cavity, and is covered with a lining called the visceral peritoneum. Parietal (Latin paries "wall"): pertaining to the wall of a body cavity. The parietal peritoneum is the lining on the inside of the abdominal cavity. (Parietal can also refer specifically to the parietal bone of the skull or associated structures.) Axial (Latin axis from Greek axōn "axle"): Towards the central axis of the organism or an extremity.

Terms of laterality : 

19 Terms of laterality Paired structures having right and left members (e.g. the kidneys) are bilateral, whereas those occurring on one side only (e.g. the spleen) are unilateral. Ipsilateral means occurring on the same side of the body; the right thumb and right great toe are ipsilateral. Contralateral means occurring on the opposite side of the body; the right hand is contralateral to the left.

Terms of Movements : 

20 Terms of Movements Flexion –indicates bending or decresing the angle b/w the bones or parts of the body.flexion of the upper limb at the elbow joint is an anterior bending;flexion of the lower limb at the knee joint is a posterior bending. The prefix hyper- is sometimes added to emphasize movement beyond the normal position, such as in hyperflexion or hyperextension. Such movements can put significant stress on the joints involved Dorsiflexion is flexion at the ankle joint when walking up-hills or lifting the toe off the ground. Planterflexion turn the foot or toes towards the planter surface(e.g;when standing on your toes)

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21 Extension is straightening or increasing the angle b/w the bones or parts of the body.extension usually occurrs in a posterior direction,but extension of lower limb at the knee joint is an anterior direction. Abduction means moving away from the median plane in the coronal plane (e.g. when moving the upper limb away from the side of the body) Adduction means moving towards the median plane in a coronal plane(e.g; when moving the upper lims towards the side of the body)

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24 Rotation is turning or revolving a part of the body around its longitudinal axis, such as turning one’s head to the side. Medial rotation brings the anterior surface of a limb closer to the median plane. Lateral rotation takes to anterior surface away from the median plane. Circumduction is a circular movement that is a combination of flexion,extension,abduction, and adduction. it occurs in such a way that the distal end of the part moves in a circle. it can occur at any part at which above mentioned movements are possible. e.g.; the hip joint.

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27 Opposition is the movement by which the pad of the 1st digit (thumb) is brougt to another digit pad. We use this movement to pinch, button a shirt and lift a tea cup. Reposition is the movement of the 1st digit from the position of opposition back to its anatomical position. Protrusion - The anterior movement of an object. This term is often applied to the jaw Retrusion - The opposite of protrusion, moving a part posteriorly.

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28 Protraction - Anterior movement of the arms at the shoulders. Retraction - Posterior movement of the arms at the shoulders. Anterograde motion is in the normal direction of flow. (For example, passage of food from the mouth to the stomach.) Retrograde motion means reversed flow. (For example, gastric reflux Elevation raises or moves a part superiorly,as in elevation shoulders when shrugging. Depression lowers or moves a part inferiorly,as in depressing the shoulders when standing at ease.

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29 Eversion moves the sole of the foot away from the median plane (turning the sole laterally). when the foot is fully everted,it is also dorsiflexed. Inversion moves the sole of the foot towards the median plane facing the sole medially). when the foot is fully inverted it is also planterflexed.

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Where to Get More Information : 

31 Where to Get More Information Suggested books of Anatomy; Snell’s Anatomy, Clinical oriented Anatomy by Keith L. Moore Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, Clemente Anatomy Atlas, Netter Atlas of Anatomy. Anatomical Museum and Lab.

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32 The End

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