Families and Social Change Vocabulary - Unit 1 Part 1

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Level 6 Unit 1 Part 2:

Level 6 Unit 1 Part 2 Families and Social Change Vocabulary Created by Linda Marshall

at•tend (verb) to go somewhere for a particular purpose at•tend•ance (noun) being somewhere for a particular purpose Roger didn’t attend his sister’s wedding because he wanted to attend a football match instead! You will learn more if you attend class every day. The teacher takes attendance every day. That team always loses, so attendance at their games is pretty low. :

at• tend (verb) to go somewhere for a particular purpose at• tend •ance (noun) being somewhere for a particular purpose Roger didn’t attend his sister’s wedding because he wanted to attend a football match instead! You will learn more if you attend class every day. The teacher takes attendance every day. That team always loses, so attendance at their games is pretty low.

com•bine (verb) to join two or more things together into a whole com•bin•a•tion (noun) two or more things that have been joined together to make a whole Agnes’s favorite meal is a combination of fish and chocolate cake. She combines them into a single delicious dish! Yummy! Would you combine fish with chocolate? Pink and grey makes a nice combination, but I wouldn’t combine pink and red in one outfit.:

com• bine (verb) to join two or more things together into a whole com•bin• a •tion (noun) two or more things that have been joined together to make a whole Agnes’s favorite meal is a combination of fish and chocolate cake. She combines them into a single delicious dish! Yummy! Would you combine fish with chocolate? Pink and grey makes a nice combination , but I wouldn’t combine pink and red in one outfit.

con•sume (verb) (1) to eat; (2) to use up con•sum•er (noun) someone who buys things, a customer A Land Cruiser consumes more gas than a little Honda. Roger consumed 3 pizzas all by himself last night. Erma was consumed with guilt after accidentally dropping the baby. Advertisers try to attract consumers. :

con• sume (verb) (1) to eat; (2) to use up con• sum •er (noun) someone who buys things, a customer A Land Cruiser consumes more gas than a little Honda. Roger consumed 3 pizzas all by himself last night. Erma was consumed with guilt after accidentally dropping the baby. Advertisers try to attract consumers .

debt (noun) / det / something you owe to another person Doris has a lot of debt. She owes $10,000,000 on her credit cards. She also has debts to friends that she needs to pay back. Doris is in debt.:

d ebt (noun) / det / something you owe to another person Doris has a lot of debt . She owes $10,000,000 on her credit cards. She also has debts to friends that she needs to pay back. Doris is in debt .

in•crease (verb / noun) (1) to raise; (2) a higher amount de•crease (verb / noun) (1) to lower; (2) a lower amount I would like my salary to increase and my weight to decrease! The decrease in police officers on the street has caused an increase in crime. :

in•crease (verb / noun) (1) to raise; (2) a higher amount de•crease (verb / noun) (1) to lower; (2) a lower amount I would like my salary to increase and my weight to decrease ! The decrease in police officers on the street has caused an increase in crime.

dis•ease (noun) sickness, illness Some common diseases are cancer, diabetes, and measles. :

dis• ease (noun) sickness, illness Some common diseases are cancer, diabetes, and measles.

af•ford (verb) to have enough money to buy something af•ford•a•ble (adjective) cheap Agnes can’t afford a BMW, so she bought a Honda. She doesn’t have enough money for a BMW. A Honda is more affordable than a BMW. Erma wasn’t able to afford a vacation this year, so she stayed home. :

af• ford (verb) to have enough money to buy something af• ford •a•ble (adjective) cheap Agnes can’t afford a BMW, so she bought a Honda. She doesn’t have enough money for a BMW. A Honda is more affordable than a BMW. Erma wasn’t able to afford a vacation this year, so she stayed home.

sa•tis•fied (adjective) having everything that is wanted or needed dis•sat•is•fied (adjective) not having everything that is wanted or needed sa•tis•fy•ing (adjective) giving everything that is wanted or needed Erma is only satisfied with A’s. She is dissatisfied with anything less than a 90. A salad isn’t a very satisfying meal because you’re hungry again in an hour!:

sa •tis•fied (adjective) having everything that is wanted or needed dis• sat •is•fied (adjective) not having everything that is wanted or needed sa •tis•fy•ing (adjective) giving everything that is wanted or needed Erma is only satisfied with A’s. She is dissatisfied with anything less than a 90. A salad isn’t a very satisfying meal because you’re hungry again in an hour!

con•trib•ute (verb) (1) to add to a problem or a success; (2) to make a donation con•trib•u•tion (noun) A lot of things are contributing to Agnes’s stress: she lost her job, her house caught on fire, and her cat ran away. Many things have contributed to Erma’s success: she is kind, she works hard, and she never gives up! Bob contributes to the animal shelter every year. He makes a contribution every year on his birthday. His contributions now total $1,000,000. The teacher contributes homework every day.:

con• trib •ute (verb) (1) to add to a problem or a success; (2) to make a donation con•trib• u •tion (noun) A lot of things are contributing to Agnes’s stress: she lost her job, her house caught on fire, and her cat ran away. Many things have contributed to Erma’s success: she is kind, she works hard, and she never gives up! Bob contributes to the animal shelter every year. He makes a contribution every year on his birthday. His contributions now total $1,000,000. The teacher contributes homework every day.

di•vorce (noun / verb) (1) the end of a marriage; (2) to end a marriage Agnes divorced her husband because he tried to control her life. They got a divorce last year. I’ve read that 46% of the marriages in the UAE end in divorce. The divorce rate is 46%.:

di• vorce (noun / verb) (1) the end of a marriage; (2) to end a marriage Agnes divorced her husband because he tried to control her life. They got a divorce last year. I’ve read that 46% of the marriages in the UAE end in divorce . The divorce rate is 46%.

ed•u•cate (verb) to teach ed•u•ca•tion (noun) learning ed•u•ca•ted (adjective) showing that you have had a good education A teacher’s job is to educate her students. A university education can help you get a high-paying job later. Erma speaks Spanish at home, but goes to university in English. This means that she speaks educated English, but her Spanish isn’t educated. Would you marry a man who wasn’t educated?:

ed •u•cate (verb) to teach ed•u• ca •tion (noun) learning ed •u•ca•ted (adjective) showing that you have had a good education A teacher’s job is to educate her students. A university education can help you get a high-paying job later. Erma speaks Spanish at home, but goes to university in English. This means that she speaks educated English, but her Spanish isn’t educated . Would you marry a man who wasn’t educated ?

en•ter•tain (verb) to keep someone happily interested en•ter•tain•ment (noun) an activity that keeps people happily interested en•ter•tain•ing (adjective) interesting in a way that makes people happy Some people find video games entertaining, but Agnes thinks they’re boring. It’s easy to entertain a cat—they will play with a shoestring for hours! Some of my favorite kinds of entertainment are books, movies, and bowling.:

en•ter• tain (verb) to keep someone happily interested en•ter• tain •ment (noun) an activity that keeps people happily interested en•ter• tain •ing (adjective) interesting in a way that makes people happy Some people find video games entertaining , but Agnes thinks they’re boring. It’s easy to entertain a cat—they will play with a shoestring for hours! Some of my favorite kinds of entertainment are books, movies, and bowling.

cap•i•tal (noun) valuable things that you have “Human capital is [a person’s] …knowledge, social traits, and skills” (Textbook, pg. 57). “Financial capital is [a person’s] money and the [things] bought with that money” (Textbook, pg. 57). “Social capital is the ability to get along with other people” (Textbook, pg. 57).:

cap •i•tal (noun) valuable things that you have “Human capital is [a person’s] …knowledge , social traits, and skills” (Textbook, pg. 57). “ Financial capital is [a person’s] money and the [things] bought with that money” (Textbook, pg. 57). “Social capital is the ability to get along with other people” (Textbook, pg. 57).

af•fect (verb) to influence, to cause a change If you miss class, it will affect your grade—you will miss important information that you need for the test. Smoking negatively affects your health—it can cause cancer another other health problems.:

af• fect (verb) to influence, to cause a change If you miss class, it will affect your grade—you will miss important information that you need for the test. Smoking negatively affects your health—it can cause cancer another other health problems.

es•pe•cial•ly (adverb) particularly, better or more than usual Agnes loves fish, especially tuna!:

es• pe •cial•ly (adverb) particularly, better or more than usual Agnes loves fish, especially tuna!

es•sen•tial (adjective) necessary, needed To pass this class, it is essential that you get at least a 70. Water, air, and food are essential for human survival.:

es• sen •tial (adjective) necessary, needed To pass this class, it is essential that you get at least a 70. Water, air, and food are essential for human survival.

gen•der (noun) fe•male (adjective / noun) male (adjective / noun) There are two genders: female and male. If you were pregnant, would you want to know the gender of your baby before it was born?:

gen •der (noun) fe •male (adjective / noun) male (adjective / noun) There are two genders : female and male . If you were pregnant, would you want to know the gender of your baby before it was born?

fi•nan•ces (noun) money management fi•nan•cial (adjective) having to do with money management Roger is having financial problems, so he has stopped eating at restaurants and taking vacations. Roger’s finances are in bad shape, so he has cut up all his credit cards. From now on, Roger’s wife will manage the family finances. :

fi •nan•ces (noun) money management fi• nan •cial (adjective) having to do with money management Roger is having financial problems, so he has stopped eating at restaurants and taking vacations. Roger’s finances are in bad shape, so he has cut up all his credit cards. From now on, Roger’s wife will manage the family finances .

af•flu•ent (adjective) rich af•flu•ence (noun) having a lot of money In the US, only affluent families have housemaids, but in Dubai, even teachers have enough money to hire one! When I worked in Indonesia, I was affluent, even though I only made about a dollar an hour, because it’s very cheap to live there. If affluence is important to you, don’t become a teacher!:

af •flu•ent (adjective) rich af •flu•ence (noun) having a lot of money In the US, only affluent families have housemaids, but in Dubai, even teachers have enough money to hire one! When I worked in Indonesia, I was affluent , even though I only made about a dollar an hour, because it’s very cheap to live there. If affluence is important to you, don’t become a teacher!

dis•cuss (verb) to talk about something important dis•cus•sion (noun) a conversation about something important Roger and Erma have discussed buying a new house. Participating in class discussions will help you learn English. We will have discussions every week to practice speaking. Agnes and Doris discussed about the problem. :

dis• cuss (verb) to talk about something important dis• cus •sion (noun) a conversation about something important Roger and Erma have discussed buy ing a new house. Participating in class discussions will help you learn English. We will have discussions every week to practice speaking. Agnes and Doris discussed about the problem.

greed (noun) a great desire to have more than you need or deserve greed•y (adjective) wanting more than you need or deserve Greedy people take more than they need instead of giving to others. Greed is the opposite of generosity. :

g reed (noun) a great desire to have more than you need or deserve greed •y (adjective) wanting more than you need or deserve Greedy people take more than they need instead of giving to others. Greed is the opposite of generosity.

harm (verb / noun) to hurt someone harm•ful (adjective) hurtful If you smoke while you’re pregnant, you might harm your baby. It’s wrong to cause harm to other people. Is drinking the tap water in Dubai harmful to your health? Is tap water harmful? :

h arm (verb / noun) to hurt someone harm •ful (adjective) hurtful If you smoke while you’re pregnant, you might harm your baby. It’s wrong to cause harm to other people. Is drinking the tap water in Dubai harmful to your health? Is tap water harmful ?

con•flict (noun) a strong difference of opinion, a fight There were always conflicts between Agnes and Roger, which caused Agnes to get mad and hiss. con•flict (verb) to oppose strongly My mom’s opinion of President Obama conflicts with my dad’s. She voted for him, but my dad thinks he’s terrible. :

c on •flict (noun) a strong difference of opinion, a fight There were always con flicts between Agnes and Roger, which caused Agnes to get mad and hiss. con• flict (verb) to oppose strongly My mom’s opinion of President Obama con flicts with my dad’s. She voted for him, but my dad thinks he’s terrible.

house•hold (noun / adjective) (1) the group of people that lives together in one house; (2) anything having to do with that group of people and the house There are 10 people in Doris’s household: herself, her husband, her parents, her grandma, and her 5 kids. That’s a lot of people in one house! Household items are things that are commonly found in people’s houses—for example, furniture, plates and silverware, and cleaning products. Household expenses include food, rent, medicine, gas, and clothing. :

house •hold (noun / adjective) (1) the group of people that lives together in one house; (2) anything having to do with that group of people and the house There are 10 people in Doris’s household : herself, her husband, her parents, her grandma, and her 5 kids. That’s a lot of people in one house! Household items are things that are commonly found in people’s houses—for example, furniture, plates and silverware, and cleaning products. Household expenses include food, rent, medicine, gas, and clothing.

in•stant (adjective / noun) immediate, right away, taking very little time Instant messaging makes communication quick and easy. Instant noodles cook in the microwave in only a minute. Agnes’s life changed in an instant because of her car accident. One minute she was texting and driving, and the next, she was paralyzed from the neck down.:

in •stant (adjective / noun) immediate, right away, taking very little time Instant messaging makes communication quick and easy. Instant noodles cook in the microwave in only a minute. Agnes’s life changed in an instant because of her car accident. One minute she was texting and driving, and the next, she was paralyzed from the neck down.

cause (verb / noun) to make something happen ef•fect (noun) result Smoking can cause lung cancer. Smoking is one cause of lung cancer. Lung cancer is one effect of smoking. One event can have many causes. For example, Agnes wrecked her car because (1) it was foggy, (2) she was texting while driving, and (3) the car in front of her stopped suddenly. And one event can have many effects. For example, Agnes’s car wreck had the following effects: (1) she is in the hospital with a broken neck, (2) her car is undriveable, and (3) the police have taken away her driving license. :

c ause (verb / noun) to make something happen ef• fect (noun) result Smoking can cause lung cancer. Smoking is one cause of lung cancer. Lung cancer is one effect of smoking. One event can have many causes . For example, Agnes wrecked her car be cause (1) it was foggy, (2) she was texting while driving, and (3) the car in front of her stopped suddenly. And one event can have many effects . For example, Agnes’s car wreck had the following effects : (1) she is in the hospital with a broken neck, (2) her car is undriveable, and (3) the police have taken away her driving license.

mul•ti•ply (verb) to grow in number If you multiply 3 by 5, you get 15. In other words, 3 multiplied by 5 is 15. After Roger lost his job, his problems multiplied. :

mul •ti•ply (verb) to grow in number If you multiply 3 by 5, you get 15. In other words, 3 multiplied by 5 is 15. After Roger lost his job, his problems multiplied .

off•spring (noun) a scientific word meaning “child” or “children” Your mom is the offspring of your grandma and grandpa. You and your brothers and sisters are your parents’ offspring. offsprings:

off •spring (noun) a scientific word meaning “child” or “children” Your mom is the offspring of your grandma and grandpa. You and your brothers and sisters are your parents’ offspring . offspring s

ra•pid (adjective) very fast Dubai has grown rapidly in the last 20 years. Is this rapid growth a positive thing? :

ra •pid (adjective) very fast Dubai has grown rapidly in the last 20 years. Is this rapid growth a positive thing?

health (noun) the condition of your mind and body health•y (adjective) good for the mind and body un•health•y (adjective) bad for the mind and body Agnes is in good health because she eats right and exercises. Agnes is healthy because she eats healthy food. Doris is in bad health because she smokes and eats McDonald’s every day. Doris is unhealthy because she has unhealthy habits.:

h ealth (noun) the condition of your mind and body health •y (adjective) good for the mind and body un •health•y (adjective) bad for the mind and body Agnes is in good health because she eats right and exercises. Agnes is healthy because she eats healthy food. Doris is in bad health because she smokes and eats McDonald’s every day. Doris is unhealthy because she has unhealthy habits.

re•view (verb / noun) (1) reread, study again; (2) a summary and discussion of research sources You should review these vocabulary words before the test. In COL 240, you will have to write a “literature review” as part of your research paper. You will summarize and discuss what other people have said about your topic.:

re• view (verb / noun) (1) reread, study again; (2) a summary and discussion of research sources You should review these vocabulary words before the test. In COL 240, you will have to write a “literature review ” as part of your research paper. You will summarize and discuss what other people have said about your topic.

role (noun) a person’s function or expected behavior role mo•del (noun) a person who serves as an example for others to follow Traditional gender roles have changed over the years in the US. Women used to be responsible for all the cooking, cleaning, and childcare. But now men share these duties. Grandparents play an important role in families. They help with childcare and pass down family traditions. Celebrities are often bad role models. I think my parents are good role models. I try to follow their example. :

r ole (noun) a person’s function or expected behavior role mo •del (noun) a person who serves as an example for others to follow Traditional gender roles have changed over the years in the US. Women used to be responsible for all the cooking, cleaning, and childcare. But now men share these duties. Grandparents play an important role in families. They help with childcare and pass down family traditions. Celebrities are often bad role models . I think my parents are good role models . I try to follow their example.

bot•tom line (noun) (1) end result, main point; (2) financial situation “Look, Roger. You’re ugly, you stink, and you don’t have any money. The bottom line is that I’m never going to marry you. So quit asking!” Obama’s speech lasted over an hour, but the bottom line was that America is totally awesome. If you want to get rich, you’ve got to watch the bottom line. Don’t waste money on things you don’t need. :

bot •tom line (noun) (1) end result, main point; (2) financial situation “Look, Roger. You’re ugly, you stink, and you don’t have any money. The bottom line is that I’m never going to marry you. So quit asking!” Obama’s speech lasted over an hour, but the bottom line was that America is totally awesome. If you want to get rich, you’ve got to watch the bottom line . Don’t waste money on things you don’t need.

gen•er•a•tion (noun) the entire group of people who were born around the same time gen•er•a•tion gap (noun) the lack of understanding between members of one generation and the next as a result of differing attitudes, experiences, values, and fashions, as well as the difference in age Women in my grandparents’ generation didn’t usually work outside the home. The current generation of college students probably doesn’t remember life before the internet. Sometimes it’s hard to carry on a conversation with old people because of the generation gap—we just don’t have that much in common.:

gen•er• a •tion (noun) the entire group of people who were born around the same time gen•er• a •tion gap (noun) the lack of understanding between members of one generation and the next as a result of differing attitudes, experiences, values, and fashions, as well as the difference in age Women in my grandparents’ generation didn’t usually work outside the home. The current generation of college students probably doesn’t remember life before the internet. Sometimes it’s hard to carry on a conversation with old people because of the generation gap —we just don’t have that much in common.

self-es•teem (noun) how you feel about yourself Roger has high self-esteem. He likes himself and believes that he’s smart and likeable. Doris has low self-esteem. She thinks she’s stupid and ugly.:

self-es• teem (noun) how you feel about yourself Roger has high self-esteem . He likes himself and believes that he’s smart and likeable. Doris has low self-esteem . She thinks she’s stupid and ugly.

se•vere (adjective) very bad, very strong Roger had such a severe headache that he had to go to the hospital. The severe storm damaged homes and cars. “Severe” is a negative word.:

se• vere (adjective) very bad, very strong Roger had such a severe headache that he had to go to the hospital. The severe storm damaged homes and cars. “ Severe ” is a negative word.

con•nect (verb) to link, to join together con•nec•tion (noun) Facebook helps friends connect online. If you have a wireless connection, you don’t have to connect your laptop to a modem using a lead.:

con• nect (verb) to link, to join together con• nec •tion (noun) Facebook helps friends connect online. If you have a wireless connection , you don’t have to connect your laptop to a modem using a lead.

stuff (noun / verb) (1) things; (2) to fill something carelessly I learned a lot of stuff in college. I have too much stuff in my purse, so I’m going to buy a bigger one. What’s that stuff on your face? Dirt? Erma stuffed her clothes into her suitcase without folding anything. What a mess! When I was little and my mom told me to clean my room, I would just stuff everything under my bed. Hahaha. :

s tuff (noun / verb) (1) things; (2) to fill something carelessly I learned a lot of stuff in college. I have too much stuff in my purse, so I’m going to buy a bigger one. What’s that stuff on your face? Dirt? Erma stuffed her clothes into her suitcase without folding anything. What a mess! When I was little and my mom told me to clean my room, I would just stuff everything under my bed. Hahaha.

vio•lent (adjective) acting with great force and/or anger vio•lence (noun) actions that intend to cause injury, pain, or harm Some people believe that if kids play violent video games, they will become violent themselves. Do you think watching violence on TV causes violence in real life?:

vio •lent (adjective) acting with great force and/or anger vio •lence (noun) actions that intend to cause injury, pain, or harm Some people believe that if kids play violent video games, they will become violent themselves. Do you think watching violence on TV causes violence in real life?

in•come (noun) money you receive, usually from working A lawyer probably has a higher income than a taxi driver. In the US, it’s rude to ask someone about their income. :

in •come (noun) money you receive, usually from working A lawyer probably has a higher income than a taxi driver. In the US, it’s rude to ask someone about their income .

wor•ry (verb) to feel fear and anxiety wor•ried (adjective) feeling fear and anxiety Agnes never studies, so she worries that she won’t get a 5 on the IELTS. Agnes worries about the IELTS every day, but she still refuses to study! She is worried about the IELTS. Instead of worrying, she should study! :

wor •ry (verb) to feel fear and anxiety wor •ried (adjective) feeling fear and anxiety Agnes never studies, so she worries that she won’t get a 5 on the IELTS. Agnes worries about the IELTS every day, but she still refuses to study! She is worried about the IELTS. Instead of worrying , she should study!

ex•treme (adjective) much more than is usual ex•treme•ly (adverb) It’s extremely hot today! It’s 50 degrees Celsius! The woman in the picture below has an extreme number of piercings. The other woman is an example of extreme tanning. The boy in the picture is doing something that looks extremely painful and weird.:

e x• treme (adjective) much more than is usual ex• treme •ly (adverb) It’s extremely hot today! It’s 50 degrees Celsius! The woman in the picture below has an extreme number of piercings. The other woman is an example of extreme tanning. The boy in the picture is doing something that looks extremely painful and weird.

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