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Earthquakes Sudden , violent shaking of the Earth’s surface. Most of this pressure occurs at plate boundaries when one plate is moving against one another.

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Focus- refers to the place beneath the ground where the earthquake takes place. Deep focus earthquakes are associated with subduction zones. Shallow- focus earthquakes- located along constructive boundaries . Epicentre – is the point on the ground surface immediately above the focus.

Some earthquakes are cause by human activity:

Some earthquakes are cause by human activity Nuclear testing Building large dams Drilling for oil Coal mining

Earthquake damage Factors influenced the earthquake damage:

Earthquake damage Factors influenced the earthquake damage Strength of earthquake and number of after shocks Population density The type of buildings The time of day The distance from the epicentre The type of rocks and sediments Secondary hazards

Ways to deal with earthquake:

Ways to deal with earthquake Basic Do nothing and accept the hazard Adjust to living in a hazardous environment- strengthen your home Leave the area Main Better forecasting and warning Building design, building location and emergency procedures

Ways of predicting and monitoring earthquakes:

Ways of predicting and monitoring earthquakes Measuring crustal movement- small scale movement of plates. Recording changes in electrical conductivity. Noting strange and unusual animal behavior . Checking historic evidence.

Earthquake in China May 12, 2008:

Earthquake in China May 12, 2008 Sichuan are is vulnerable to earthquake because it is close to the boundary of two converging plates. Epicenter of the 7.9 magnitude was in a mountainous region of Sichuan province. 10 km Northwest of Chengdu with 10 million people. Earthquake energy is measured on the Richter scale . Most are felt between 3.5 – 8 magnitude.


cause Indo- Australian plate subducting the Eurasian plate at a rate of 50 mm per year.

Fault line:

Fault line A  fault   line  is a crack in the Earth's crust. It's where an earthquake will typically follow, since it's made a weak spot in the crust. They happen from the shifting of the Earth's plates.

Damage of the earthquake in China:

Damage of the earthquake in China Establishments like schools, hospital, building were destroyed. Children became orphans Damage dam Landslide that leads to flood

Earthquake in Kobe- January 2005:

Earthquake in Kobe- January 2005 Casualties – 5000 deaths, 30 000 injuries, 300 000 people homeless. Cause – oceanic plate plunging ( subducting) under the continental Eurasian plate. 7.2 magnitude 1300 aftershocks was recorded

Damage of the earthquake in Kobe:

Damage of the earthquake in Kobe Collapsing motorways Important buildings and hospital was destroyed. 80 % of schools , museums , and sports facilities was destroyed. Gas and water pipes were broken that leads to 175 separate fires. Transport and communication were badly affected. Damage – $ 160 billion.

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