Answer hodder paper A

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Answer hodder paper A:

Answer hodder paper A

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1. (a) (i) (Average) number of deaths per 1000 people. (ii) A. Central Africa B. Western Europe/Eastern Europe/Northern Asia (or Europe) (iii) A. Ideas such as in Europe and North America: more likelihood of obesity/over eating therefore increased chance of heart disease; more people may smoke tobacco products therefore higher rates of cancer; road traffic accidents more likely as traffic densities will be higher; greater proportion of elderly people/ageing population.

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B. Ideas such as in Central and Southern Africa: less availability of contraception/family planning/birth control; less educated re. contraception; less likely to be able to afford contraception; less likely to worry about expense of bringing up children; less likely for parents to work full time/women put careers first; less likely that women will be educated; female emancipation is less likely; more likely to want children to work on the land; more likely to want children to send out to earn money; more likely to want children to look after parents in old age; more likely to have higher IMR; less awareness of problems caused by overpopulation; less likely to be affected by government policy to reduce family size; more likely to have large families due to tradition; credit impact of one child policy in China, etc.

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(b) (i) Ideas such as: large number/proportion of old dependents/lots of old people/wide top; increasing number/proportion of old dependents/decreasing number/ proportion of young dependents; more living to 95+/people living longer/life expectancy increasing; less than 10 000 at 95+ in 2000 c. 20 000 in 2025 (or could state figures for specific identified age groups within old dependents,

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(ii) Impacts such as: increases dependency ratio; strain on working population/higher taxation; more money for pensions/to support elderly/for elderly to live on; need for more care homes/health care/facilities for elderly, etc; not enough workers for key positions/smaller workforce/more non-economically active people; difficult to defend country; need to attract foreign workers; services for young under utilised/uneconomical; economy slows down/not so vibrant/less innovative workforce; increase in retirement age; creation of jobs caring for elderly, etc

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(c) At the lowest level students will make statements including limited detail describing problems caused by overpopulation (e.g. people do not have enough resources, lack of work, inadequate food supplies, poor access to education, poor access to health care, overcrowded housing, traffic congestion, atmospheric pollution, inadequate water supply/sanitation, overuse of agricultural land/overgrazing, deforestation/loss of natural vegetation,

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Middle level students will provide more developed statements describing problems caused by overpopulation (e.g. lack of work which leads to poverty, inadequate food supplies which cause death by starvation/malnutrition, poor access to education so people remain unqualified, poor access to health care leads to high death rates, overcrowded housing with inadequate basic amenities etc.).

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Top level students will use named example (e.g. Bangladesh), and provide comprehensive and accurate statements including some place specific reference (e.g. traffic congestion as there are far too many vehicles on the roads especially in cities such as Dhaka, overuse of agricultural land on flood plains of Brahmaputra/Ganges leads to loss of soil fertility/lower yields, widespread deforestation for firewood on slopes of Himalayas, etc).

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2. (a) (i) Central Business District/CBD (ii) Ideas such as: high demand for land; high cost of land; limited space/saves space; build upward rather than outward; etc. (iii) Ideas such as: smaller proportion used for residential purposes in inner city; greater proportion used for industry/warehouses in inner city; similar amount of land used for convenience shops in both areas; no land used for comparison shops in both areas; greater proportion used for public buildings in inner city; iv) For the example for industry the reasons could include: traditional industrial zone located in inner city; associated with growth of city; location close to railways/main routes; outer suburban growth largely housing estates; industrial location unlikely to be granted planning approval; likely to cause conflicts/or examples; areas are less well linked to major communications

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(b) (i) Ideas such as: model show higher overall quality of life in developed world city; in developed world city quality of life improves with distance from centre; improvement is gradual/steady (dev); in developing world, city quality of life generally declines with distance from centre; after initial improvement (dev); (ii) Ideas such as: It is true that in general there is higher overall quality of life in a developed world city; however in some parts of developing world, cities quality of life can be just as high as in developed world (dev); In the developed world, city quality of life generally does improve with distance from centre; however there are some poor quality outer suburban estates (dev); and some high quality/gentrified parts of inner cities (dev); In developing world, city quality of life generally does decline with distance from centre; as shanty towns/squatter settlements are found in outskirts

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(c) Advantages relating to issues such as: service provision; infrastructural development; increase of housing stock; improvement of communications; employment provision; etc. Disadvantages relating to issues such as: land use conflict; relative cost; environmental damage; impact on communities /cultures; etc.

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