Answers to Hodder past paper B

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Answers to Hodder past paper B:

Geography paper 1 Answers to Hodder past paper B

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1. (a) (i) 0 to 4 years (ii) A. More people in Netherlands at 85+/there is a section for 85+ on Netherlands pyramid but not on Ethiopia pyramid/Netherlands has wider apex/top to pyramid, etc. B. Greater percentage of population in younger age groups in Ethiopia/wider base to Ethiopian pyramid, etc. (iii) Possible answers include: greater proportion of young dependents in Ethiopia; about 45% of population in Ethiopia compared with less than 20% of that of Netherlands; greater proportion of old dependents in Netherlands; about 15% of population of Netherlands compared with less than 10% of that of Ethiopia; greater proportion of total dependents in Ethiopia; over 50% of population of Ethiopia compared with less than 40% of that of Netherlands, etc.

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(iv) LEDCs: extended family look after children; children look after elderly relatives; charities/aid organizations, etc. MEDCs: government support/taxes/social security payments; pensions; nursing homes, etc. (b) (i) Reasons such as: longer life expectancy; better treatment of diseases/or examples; improved health care facilities/or examples; investment in care homes/services for elderly; low birth rates/small families, etc. (ii) Consequences such as: increasing percentage of elderly dependents; strain on working population/higher taxation; need for more money to be spent on care homes/healthcare/facilities for elderly, etc.; not enough workers for key positions; difficult to defend country; need to attract foreign workers; services for young under utilized/uneconomical, etc.

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( c) Possible answers include: overpopulation/not enough resources to go round; lack of work; inadequate food supplies; poor access to education; poor access to health care; overcrowded housing/lack of space for development; traffic congestion; atmospheric pollution; inadequate water supply/sanitation; lack of facilities for waste disposal/land pollution; overuse of agricultural land/overgrazing; deforestation/loss of natural vegetation, etc .

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2. (a) (i) Town/city/built up area (ii) A. Brazil/Argentina/Chile/Australia/New Zealand/UK/Germany/Sweden, etc B. Africa (iii) Ideas such as: urban population increasing in both types of country; greater proportion living in urban areas in developed countries; faster rate of growth in developing countries; tripled in 60 years (dev); etc. (iv) Ideas such as: process started much earlier in developed countries; increases in developing countries as industry/commerce develops in towns; amounts of migration decline in developed countries as rural areas are fully developed; or overcrowding in urban areas puts off potential migrants; some people looking for attributes of rural lifestyle in developed countries; predominance of counter urbanization, etc.

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(b) ( i ) Evidence such as: many unmade roads; many temporary/self-built houses/few concrete houses; use of standpipes for water/no running water; open drains/no proper sanitation; built on undesirable land/close to marshes/factories, etc. (ii) Possible answers include: availability of work; higher wages; availability of food supplies; education; health care; natural events – must state type; bright lights syndrome; political/religious persecution; wars and conflicts; better standard of living; better sanitation; better water supplies; mechanization of farms ; land fragmentation; joining family members, etc.

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(c) Ideas such as: installation of mains water; laying of sewage pipes/building of sewage works; infrastructural development; increase of local authority housing stock; improvement of communications; regular disposal of refuse; self help schemes; site and services schemes; education in building skills; provision of low cost building materials; building of schools; building of clinics/hospitals; charitable initiatives working with street children, etc.

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