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Urbanization Is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities. It occurs because people move from rural areas( countryside ) to urban areas ( towns and cities ). This happen when the country is still developing.

Counter- urbanization:

Counter- urbanization people move away from the city to rural environments.

2 main causes of urbanization in LEDC’s:

2 main causes of urbanization in LEDC’s Rural to urban migration is happening on a massive scale due to population pressure and lack of resources in rural areas. These are known as ‘push factors. People living in rural areas believe that the standard of living in urban areas will be much better than in rural areas . They hope for well-paid jobs, greater opportunities to find ‘informal ‘work, and better health education.



Push factors in Rural areas:

Push factors in Rural areas Drought Not enough land Failed crops Poverty Little work Loss of farm work Lack of food No prospects High infant mortality rates Natural disaster Few jobs Malnutrition Poor education

Pull factors in urban areas:

Pull factors in urban areas Education Shops Medical care Money Housing

Slum areas in the city:

Slum areas in the city

Urbanization in Peru- Lima:

Urbanization in Peru- Lima 35 % of Peru’s 10 million people live in its capital city 1940, Lima’s population was 600 000, or 10% of the country’s total, and most of the population lived in rural areas, mainly in Andes mountains. As Peru’s population has grown, more people chose to move away from their villages and small towns to the capital city, where they hoped for a better life for themselves and their children.


Peru Republic of Peru Capital- Lima Area- 1,285 216km² Population – 30.4 million Borders – N , Ecuador, Colombia W, Brazil SE, Bolivia S, Chile E, Pacific ocean Main economic activities Mining Manufacturing Agriculture fishing

Cusipata :

Cusipata Is a typical village in the Peruvian Andes. It's population is about 500 people who live by combining agriculture with paid work outside the village. Crops – potatoes, maize, barley, and beans Livestock – sheep, pigs, llamas Due to steep slopes and the unpredictable climate , farming is a difficult job and yields are often low.

Factors influencing migration to Lima from villages in Andes:

Factors influencing migration to Lima from villages in Andes Not enough agriculture land because it is shared between sons Drought and other natural hazards Low prices for agricultural products Cannot afford clothes and food for children Not much opportunity for children to go to school No running water, electricity or sewage disposal in many villages.

What migrants experience when they get to Lima?:

What migrants experience when they get to Lima? Racial discrimination Separation from family Better-quality services, e.g. water, electricity Better schools for migrant children Low pay and low working hours Forced to live in self-built houses or on the streets

Peruvian Andes:

Peruvian Andes The  Andes  is the longest continental mountain range in the world. It is a continual range of highlands along the western coast of South America.  The Central Andes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia

Urbanization in India:

Urbanization in India Urbanization in India is taking place at a faster rate than anywhere in the world. 2030- 41% of the population will be living in the cities. 2013-28% of the population are living in the city. 2006- more than 38 million Indians were online, 70 million have cell phones and live in the cities.

PowerPoint Presentation:

India – South Asia Capital – New Delhi Area – 3 287 590 km² Population – 1.2 billion Borders – S, Indian ocean SW, Arabian sea SE, Bay of Bengal W, Pakistan NE, China, Bhutan, Nepal E, Burma, Bangladesh

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