Internal structures of town and cities

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Structures of core and frame of CBD


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Internal structures of town and cities:

Internal structures of town and cities The central business district

CBD- is the commercial and economic core of the city, the area that is most accessible to public transport and the location with the highest land values.:

CBD- is the commercial and economic core of the city, the area that is most accessible to public transport and the location with the highest land values. Core- central , innermost Characteristic features of CBD Multistory development Concentration of retailing Concentration of public transport Concentration of offices Vertical zoning Functional grouping Low residential population Highest pedestrian flows Traffic restrictions CBD change overtime


PROBLEMS IN CBD Lack of space High cost of land Congestion Pollution Lack of sites Planning restrictions Strict government control

The core-frame concept:

The core-frame concept Is it surrounded by zone in which there are specialized services, like medical, administrative and educational, wholesale and warehousing, transport and light manufacturing.


Core Multistory development Concentration bank, businesses Absence of manufacturing industry Concentration of department stores, chain stores, specialist retail outlets Area of the highest shopping quality Functional zoning-similar activities concentrate and cluster, e.g. bank/shoe shops Low residential population Highest density of pedestrians Some vertical zoning


Frame Multi-let residences, often old villas Transport terminals Office area Shops requiring large areas of land Some derelict land Limited light manufacturing Wholesalers, warehouses Car sales, services Small shops, low grade shops Specialist services e.g. medical

Factor influencing the CBD decline:

Factor influencing the CBD decline Investors and businesses are attracted by peripheral sites that have good access and environments, and often lower cost. Cost of development and upkeep of CBD are high( business rates, rents and land cost) Investment in city centers often lack a co- ordinated plan Congestion reduces accessibility of CBDs Rise in car ownership leads to increased personal mobility and the rise of leisure shopping Progressive suburbanization leads to urban sprawl; the city centre may be many miles away Planning policies can encourage urban expansion and provide ‘ out of town developments

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City councils, determined to attract new industry/inward investment, offer greenfield sites for development Companies find peripheral locations cheaper, and nearer customers and staff who live in the leafy suburbs City centers are perceived as dirty, unsafe, with an ageing environment and poor infrastructure

Sphere of influence:

Sphere of influence The area that a settlement serves in known as the sphere of influence. Example: Hamlets and villages generally have a low spheres of influence whereas larger towns and cities have a large sphere of influence.


Threshold The number of people need to support a good or services. Example: low order goods may only need a small number of people ( 1000 say ) to support a small shop, whereas a large department store might require 50,000 people in order for it to survive and make profit.

Functions and services in a settlement:

Functions and services in a settlement Low order functions or basic order – are found in a small hamlet whereas the same functions and services found in larger settlements ( villages and market towns) Low order examples such as: Newsagent/church/general store/primary school/hairdressers High order functions or specialized ones – found in the cities that need a large range. High order examples such as: Department store/university/jeweller/theatre/specialist shops/car showrooms;

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