settlement

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Settlement in rural and urban areas

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Settlement is define as a place in which people live and where they carry out a variety of activities, such as residence, trade, agriculture and manufacturing. Types of settlement * Rural settlements * Urban settlements

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Rural settlements rural area- Area of countryside / agricultural land / sparsely populated area. Study of rural settlements includes: Pattern Form Site and situation Function and hierarchy change

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Pattern Dispersed settlement- individual houses and farms are widely scattered throughout the countryside.

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2 . Nucleated settlements- are those in which houses and buildings are tightly clustered around a central feature such as a church, village green and crossroads.

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Form or shape 1. Linear settlements- houses are spread out along a road or a river.

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Cruciform- settlements are found at the intersections of roads and usually consist of lines of buildings radiating out from the crossroads.

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Green village- consist of dwellings and other buildings, such as church, clustered around a small village green or common or other open space.

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Site and Situation - the site of a settlement is the actual land on which a settlement is built, whereas the situation or position is the relationship between a particular settlement and its surrounding area. Availability of water Freedom from flooding Level sites to build on Local timber for construction fuel Sunny south-facing slopes Proximity to rich soils for cultivation and lush pasture grazing The potential for trade and commerce .

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Dry point- is an elevated site in an area of otherwise poor natural drainage. It includes small hills ( knolls) and islands. Wet point – is a site with reliable supply of water from springs or wells in an otherwise dry area. Spring line villages at the foot of chalk and limestone ridges are good examples. Spring line settlements occur when there is a line of sites where water is available.

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Rural area or settlement in Ethiopia an example of LEDC’s. Less likely to have running water in LEDCs Less likely to have supplies of electricity in LEDCs / details of differences in fuels used In LEDC rural areas people work in agriculture In LEDCs people will work in their village Details of differences in transport provision/access etc Details of differences in housing structures Ethiopia Capital: Addis Ababa Population: 93 000 000 Description:

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Ethiopia is the most mountainous country in Africa. Some 85% of Ethiopians live in highland in small villages. Heavy rainfall (over 1500 mm a year) high temperatures in the mountains are good for crops. But the rain does not always arrive on time. Ethiopia live off land. More than 75 percent of the population depends on agriculture for a living but only 13 percent of the land can be used for crop production.

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Ethiopia and its borders. N – Eritrea E- Djibouti W- Sudan and South Sudan S- Kenya Range of a good – The maximum distance that a person is prepared to travel to buy an item ( good) is known as the range of good

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Korodegaga village in Ethiopia Advantages for settlement It had access to water Flat fertile soil Forest for building and firewood Plenty of food crops Disadvantage Lack of rain all year Drought Hunger and starvation

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Rural settlement in France Nucleated settlement have often found in lowland areas where land is fertile. Dispersed settlement are often found in upland areas where settlement is difficult. difference of MEDC’s rural area MEDC rural areas have less poverty Details of differences in housing structures 3. MEDCs will have more schools MEDCs will be more likely to have doctors/clinics in rural areas in MEDCs relatively few rural dwellers work on farms in MEDCs they may commute Details of differences in transport provision/access etc.

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Advantages of rural settlement in MEDC’s Fresh water supply Flat land Fertile land/land for cultivation Sheltered from wind Nearby woodland for use as building material/fuel etc

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Advantages such as: Proximity to open space For country walks / dog walking (dev) Large homes / garden space Quiet environment Low crime rates Low levels of atmospheric pollution Village ‘community’ / everyone knows each other etc . Disadvantages such as: High cost of properties/land Very little local employment Need to commute to work (dev) No locally available middle/high order services/or examples Need to travel distances for weekly shopping Living in a rural settlement today.

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Urban settlements

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Settlement Hierarchy Hierarchy – means “order”. Settlements are often ordered in terms of their size. 1.Dispersed individual households are at the base of the rural settlement hierarchy. 2. hamlets- the next level of settlement hierarchy. Hamlet is a small collection of farms and houses which generally lacks all but the most basic services and facilities. 3. Village- it has a much larger population. It can support a wider range of services , including school, church, or chapel, community center and a small range of shops. 4. Towns and city- offering more services.

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Conurbation - A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urban agglomeration , in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labor market or travel to work area.

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A conurbation can be confused with a metropolitan area. As the term is used in North America, a metropolitan area can be defined by the Census Bureau or it may consist of a central city and its suburbs, while a conurbation consists of adjacent metropolitan areas that are connected with one another by urbanization. Megalopolis- a very large city .

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Vocabulary a  sedimentary rock   consisting  predominantly of  calcium  carbonate, varieties of  which  are formed from the skeletons of marine microorganisms and coral: used as a building  stone  and in the manufacture of lime . Limestone Plateau 1. a   wide   mainly   level   area   of   elevated   land 2.

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