Pre-natal Development

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Stages of Pre-natal Development, Teratology and Hazards to pre-natal development

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Pre-natal Period: Where Life Begins

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Pre-natal Development: Talk About Growth

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Characterized by rapid changes !!! Most dramatic gains in height and weight of the entire lifespan From a microscopic cell to a 20-inch neonate( newborn ) in just 9 months!!! Weight at birth is a BILLION times heavier than at CONCEPTION

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The Stages of Pre-natal Development: a. Germinal Period - first 2 weeks after conception b. Embryonic Period - 2 to 8 weeks after conception c. Fetal Period - 2 months to 7 months after conception

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a. Germinal Period Conception- a single sperm cell ( male ) penetrates the outer coating of the egg ( female ) and fuses to form ONE FERTILIZED EGG

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Zygote The first cell of a new organism The union of sperm and egg

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Your most fortunate moments!!!! Out of 200 million sperm cells and 5000 eggs, “YOU” won the race!!!

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The Germinal Period includes the following: Creation of the zygote 24 to 30 hrs after fertilization)

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In 36 hours, Zygote divides into two

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After 2 days, 2 cells, become 4 cells

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In 3 days, 4 cells become a compact ball of 16-32 cells

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In 4 to 5 days, inner cell mass ( blastocyst ) is still free in the unterus

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11 to 15 days, blastocyst is IMPLANTED into uterine wall

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To sum it up, the germinal period includes: creation of the zygote Continued cell division The attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall

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b. Embryonic Stage The name of the mass cells, zygote is now called EMBRYO

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occurs 2 to 8 weeks after conception

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Two layers of cells are formed: Inner layer or the ENDODERM Outer layer ( ECTODERM & MESODERM)

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ENDODERM Develops into the digestive and respiratory organs

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Ectoderm Outermost layer Becomes the nervous system Sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose) Skin parts (nails & hair)

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Mesoderm Middle layer Becomes the circulatory, skeletal, muscular, excretory and reproductive systems

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ORGANOGENESIS The process of organ formation during the first two months of pre-natal development

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The support systems for the embryo also develop rapidly : Placenta Umbilical cord amnion

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Placenta Consists of a disk-shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and the offspring intertwine but do not join

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For exchange of nutrients (but sometimes, harmful substances too )

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Umbilical cord Contains two arteries and one vein that connects the baby to the placenta

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Amnion A bag or an envelope that contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats

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Embryo at about 6 weeks : notice the large neural tube and the formation of heart and other internal organs

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To sum it up: During Embryonic period, Cell differentiation intensifies Life-support systems for the embryo develop Organs appear

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c. Fetal Period 2 months to 7 months after conception Growth and development continue dramatically during this period

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Fetal Period

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a. 3 months after conception About 3 inches long, weighs about 1 ounce Fetus has become active Moves its arms and legs Opens and closes its mouth Moves its head

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Face, forehead, eyelids, nose, chin can now be distinguished Also the upper arms, lower arms, hands & lower limbs Genitals can now be identified as male or female

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b. 4 months after conception About 6 inches long, 4 to 7 ounces Pre-natal reflexes are stronger Mother feels arm and leg movements for the first time

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c. 5 months after conception About 12 in., almost a pound Fingernails, toenails have formed Fetus is more active

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d. 6 months after conception 14 inches long, about 1 ½ pound Eye & eyelids are completely formed Grasping reflex are present Irregular movements occur

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e. 7 to 9 months Fetus grow longer Gains substantial weight About 4 pounds

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Teralogy and Hazards to Prenatal Development

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Teratology The field of study that investigate the causes of congenital (birth defects)

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Teratogen Non-genetic material or agent that can cause harm to the embryo if ingested or contracted by the mother Pass through the placenta

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This includes: Prescription Drugs Non-Prescription Drugs Psychoactive Drugs

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Prescription Drugs

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Non-Prescription Drugs

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Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome(FAS) cluster of abnormalities that appears in the children of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy

FAS:

FAS

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FAS

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End of Presentation!!! Prepared by: Maria Rita Manis

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