Electronic Spectroscopy : Electronic Spectroscopy Ultraviolet (UV) and visible (vis) spectroscopy:
This is the earliest method of molecular spectroscopy.
A phenomenon of interaction of molecules with UV and visible lights.
Absorption of photon results in electronic transition of a molecule, and electrons are promoted from ground state to higher electronic states. UV and Visible Spectroscopy : UV and Visible Spectroscopy In structure determination : UV-vis spectroscopy is used to detect the presence of chromophores like dienes, aromatics, polyenes, and conjugated ketones, etc.
Also very useful in quantitative analysis of compounds with chromophores.
Chiroptical spectroscopy-ORD and CD : the difference in the refraction (ORD) or absorption (CD) of left and right circularly polarized light is measured, or absorptivity (CD) between left and right circularly polarized light . Chiroptical Spectroscopy : Chiroptical Spectroscopy Chiroptical properties reflect stereochemical arrangement of atom in a molecule. Both CD and ORD show sense of handedness in reflecting the handedness of nonsuperimposable mirror-image molecule (enantiomer). So their curves appear as positive or negative peaks of Cotton effects reflecting the difference in chirality of molecule. Display of spectra : Display of spectra Horizontal scale (abscissa): all three methods use wavelength, λ, in nm (nanometer) unit.
Vertical scale (ordinate):
UV-vis: absorbance, A, or molar absorptivity, ε.
CD: difference in molar absorptivity, Δε, or molar ellipticity, [θ].
ORD: molar rotation, [φ]. Slide 5: UV: A vs. λ (nm), the same curve for 3R-, 3S-isomer, and racemate.
CD: Δε vs. λ, + Cotton effect for 3R-isomer, and - Cotton effect for 3S-isomer.
ORD: [φ] (molar rotation) vs. λ, + C. E. for 3R-isomer and – C. E. for 3S-isomer. Origin of electronic spectra : Origin of electronic spectra Absorptions of UV-vis light photons by molecule results in electronic excitation of molecule with chromophore.
The electronic transition involves promotion of electron from a electronic ground state to higher energy state, usually from a molecular orbital called HOMO to LUMO. Electronic transition : Electronic transition HOMO: Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital
LUMO: Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital
Electronic transition usually originates from valence electrons in a chromophore, such as the nonbonding (n) or π electrons in unsaturated functions. Electronic transition : Electronic transition Can be assigned to different transition types according to the molecular orbital involved, such as π -> π* (in alkenes or benzene), n ->π* (in keto group).
Due to their symmetry property in MO’s, such transition can be allowed (high intensity) or forbidden (low intensity).
Absorptions with high ε are allowed transitions, and low ε absorptions are forbidden transiton. UV Spectral Origin : UV Spectral Origin Transition of an electron from HOMO to LUMO by light photon Slide 10: UV Absorptions for some isolate chromophores Measurement of UV-vis absorption : Measurement of UV-vis absorption The electromagnetic radiation may be described by the wavelength λ (nm), by the frequency ν (s-1), or by the wavenumber , (cm-1), related by energy difference as following relationships: UV regions : UV regions The UV region is divided to two parts:
a. the near UV region: 190-400 nm.
b.The far or vacuum UV region: below 190 nm.
The far UV region has interference due to absorption of oxygen, which must be removed or flushed with nitrogen in the spectrometer to obtain the spectra of sample. Measurement of Absorbance : Measurement of Absorbance The absorbance (A) or molar absorptivity (ε) of an UV band is calculated according to the Beer-Bouger-Lambert Law: I0 : the intensity of incident light
I : the intensity of transmitted light
l : the path length in cm
c : the concentration in mol L-1
k : the absorption coefficient
ε : the molar extinction coefficient or molar absorptivity in cm2 mol-1 or L mol-1 cm-1. Absorbance : Absorbance The relationship between k and ε is
Since absorbance A = , and A is the actual quantity measured, the following eqn. relates A with ε:
For i absorbing species :
The actual quantity measured is the relative intensities of the light beam transmitted by a reference cell containing pure solvent and an identical cell containing sample solution. Absorbance : Absorbance Frank-Condon Principle : Frank-Condon Principle The broadened bands of UV curve indicate wide distribution of energies, due to superimpostion of several vibrational levels on the electronic level.
From the P.E. diagram of a diatomic system, the G.S. has lower energy, shorter requil. (bond length), while the E.S. has higher energy, longer requil. (bond weaker). Each of this electronic state has many vibrational states in it. Frank-Condon Principle : Frank-Condon Principle It is the transitions between the lowest vitrational state (ν = 0) in G.S. to various vib. levels in E.S. that determine the shape and intensity of a UV band.
So it is determined by the spacing of the vibrational levels and the distribution and contribution of each vibrational subband to the total band intensity.
This is governed by the Frank-Condon Principle stated as following: Frank-Condon Principle : Frank-Condon Principle “The nuclear motion (10-13 s) is much slower as compared with electronic motion in transition (10-16 s), so it is negligible during the time required for an electronic excitation.”
Since the nucleus does not move during the excitation, the internuclear distance keeps the same, and “the most probable component of a electronic transition involves only the vertical transitions”. Frank-Condon Principle : Frank-Condon Principle The excitation going from ν = 0 (G.S.) to ν = 3 (E.S.) is the most probable one for vertical transition because it falls on the highest point in the electron probability curve for ν = 3 in E.S.
Other vertical transitions (0->2, 0->1,...,
0->4, 0->5,...) are smaller in their probabilities of transition as revealed in the composite fine struture of vibronic broad band. Slide 20: Frank-Condon principle Solvent effects : Solvent effects Promotion of electron from G.S. to E.S. leads to more polar excited state that is more easily stabilized by polar solvent associations (H-bonds). In going from nonpolar to polar solvents the fine vibronic structure is smoothed into a broad band.
For π -> π* transition, the π* state is more polar and stabilized more in polar solvent relative to nonpolar one, thus in going from nonpolar to polar solvent there is a red shift or bathochromic shift (increase in λmax, decrease in ΔE). Solvent effects : Solvent effects For n -> π* transition, the n state is much more easily stabilized by polar solvent effects (H-bonds and association), so in going from nonpolar to polar solvent there is a blue shift or hypsochromic shift (decrease in λmax, increase in ΔE). Slide 23: heptane methanol Hypsochromic shift Slide 24: Solvent Effects Electronic transition : Electronic transition Electronic transition (UV) measure the probability and energy of exciting a molecule from G.S. to E.S. (or promoting electron from HOMO to LUMO).
For each energy state both singlet (S) and triplet (T) states are possible. In singlet state the spins of electron pair are antiparallel; if the spins are parallel, three states are possible and are jointly called triplet state.
M = 2S + 1 M: multiplicity
S: total spin Electronic transitions : Electronic transitions Selection rules: allow S→S, and T→T processes but not S→T and T→S. Ground states are usually singlets; thus most excitations are to singlet excited states, like S0→S1, S0→S2, …
Triplet states are usually formed by intersystem crossing from an excited singlet state, such as S1, rather than by direct excitation from the S0 ground state. Electronic transitions : Electronic transitions The electronically excited states may decay unimolecularly back to the ground state by photophysically emitting energy of fluorescence (from an excited singlet state) or of phosphorescence (from an excited triplet state).
Alternatively, it might decay photochemically to a different ground state of different structure. One can thus measure the absorption and emission from molecules.
The λmax of an absorption band correspond to the excitation energy, and εmax to the intensity of transition, a measure of the probability of promoting an electron, given the excitation energy. Electronic transitions : Electronic transitions Intersystem crossing Electronic activation and decay mode of a chromophore. Classification of Electronic Transitions : Classification of Electronic Transitions The wavelength of an electronic transition depends on the energy difference between the G.S. and the E.S. It is a useful approximation to consider the λ of to be determined by the ΔE of MO originally occupied by the e’s at G.S. and the higher excited MO in E.S.
The order: σ ->π ->n->π* ->σ* Different type of UV transitions : Different type of UV transitions UV transition type : UV transition type 1.σ→σ* transitions: for cpds. with σbond only, high ΔE, short λ (< 200 nm).
Appears in satd. hydrocarbons with σ orbital and transition to antibonding σ* or to molecular Rydberg orbital (higher valence shell orbitals, 3s, 3p, 4s, …), and involves large ΔE, and small λmax that appears in far-UV region.
Ex. cyclopropane λmax 190 nm.
cycloalkane λmax 135 nm. (vacum UV) UV transition type : UV transition type 2. n→π* transitions : the excitation of an electron on an nonbonding orbital, such as unshared pair e’s on O, N, S,..to an antibonding π*, usually in an double bond with hetero atoms, such as C=O, C=S, N=O, etc. A sym. forbidden and low intensity transition.
Ex. satd. aldehydes and ketones : λmax at 185-300 nm. UV transition type : UV transition type 3.π→π* transitions : for cpds. containing double, triple bonds, or aromatic rings; a π electron is excited to an antibonding π* orbital. This is usually a sym. allowed and high intensity transition.
Ethylene : absorbs at 162 nm (10000), in vacuum UV. Extended conjugation lowers, ΔE, and increase in λmax, if extended beyond 5 double bonds then getting into visible region. UV transition type : UV transition type 4. n→σ* transitions: excitation from nonbonding orbital to an antibonding σ* orbital.
Ex. CH3OH(vap.) 183 nm (ε 150) NEt3(vap.) 227 nm (900) MeI(hexane) 258 nm (380)
5. Rydberg transition: mainly to higher excited states. For most organic molecules occurs at λ below 200 nm. Part of a series of molecular electronic transitions occurs with narrowing spacing nearing the ionization potential of organic molecule. Slide 35: Carbonyl chromophore of 3-methylcyclohexanone Orbital Spin and E states : Orbital Spin and E states Diagram showing the ground state and excited state configuration of carbonyl chromophore.
Singlet state (S) have electron spin paired and triplet state (T) have two spins parallel.
n orbital containing two electrons is perpendicular to πorπ* orbitals.
Subscript 0 refers to G.S., 1 to 1 st. E.S., 2 to 2 nd. E.S. Terms describing UV absorptions : Terms describing UV absorptions 1. Chromophores: functional groups that give electronic transitions.
2. Auxochromes: substituents with unshared pair e's like OH, NH, SH ..., when attached to π chromophore they generally move the absorption max. to longer λ.
3. Bathochromic shift: shift to longer λ, also called red shift.
4. Hysochromic shift: shift to shorter λ, also called blue shift.
5. Hyperchromism: increase in ε of a band.
6. Hypochromism: decrease in ε of a band. Orbital Spin States : Orbital Spin States Singlet state (S):Most molecules have G.S. with all electron spin paired and most E.S. also have electron spin all paired, even though they may be one electron each lying in two different orbital. Such states have zero total spin and spin multiplicities of 1, are called singlet (S) states. Total Spin Multiplicities Orbital Spin States : Orbital Spin States If an external magnetic field is applied to the singlet spin system, there is only one zero angular momentum in the field direction.
For some of the excited states, there are states with a pair of electrons having their spins parallel (in two orbitals), leading to total spin of 1 and multiplicities of 3. Total spine Multiplicities Orbital Spin States : Orbital Spin States For triplet state: Under the influence of external field, there are three values (i.e. 3 energy states) of +1, 0, -1 times the angular momentum. Such states are called triplet states (T).
According to the selection rule, S→S, T→T, are allowed transitions, but S→T, T→S, are forbidden transitions. Selection Rules of electronic transition : Selection Rules of electronic transition Electronic transitions may be classed as intense or weak according to the magnitude of εmax that corresponds to allowed or forbidden transition as governed by the following selection rules of electronic transition:
1. Spin selection rule: there should be no change in spin orientation or no spin inversion during these transitions. Thus, S→S, T→T, are allowed, but S→T, T→S, are forbidden. Selection Rules of electronic transition : Selection Rules of electronic transition 2. Angular momentum rule: the change in angular momentum should be within one unit (0 or ±1).
3. Symmetry rule: the product of the electric dipole vector and the group theoretical representations of the two states is totally symmetric.
The spin selection rule simply states that transitions between states of different multiplicities are forbidden. Selection Rules of electronic transition : Selection Rules of electronic transition The second rule agrees with the fact most states are within one unit of angular momentum of each other.
The symmetry rule indicates that group representation of initial and final states should be the same as the representations of axes system they belong to. If they are different then the transition moment of that transition is zero and the transition is thereby forbidden.
Group representation is the symmetry property of the orbitals. Allowed and Forbidden transitions : Allowed and Forbidden transitions Forbidden transition: The n→π* transition of satd. ketones, where a carbonyl n electron is promoted to an orthogonal π* orbital (n⊥π*); there is no orbital overlap for such 90° movement of charge and the transition moment is zero.
Allowed transition: For π→π* transition in double bond, the symmetry of initial and final states are the same and a large transition moment occurs to give high intensity of the band. Allowed and Forbidden transitions : Allowed and Forbidden transitions Forbidden transition: The n→π* transition of keto group is still observable with low intensity, this is due to the vibronic states in the transition. Symmetry of orbital changed by C=O vibration that allow some overlap of orbital and the transition to occur. Absorption Intensity : Absorption Intensity Shape of electronic absorption band arises from various vibronic sublevels. The band intensity is described by εmax in UV. This quantity can not be calculated theoretically, but can be calculated by the wave-length weighted area under the absorption band.
In UV curve it is called dipole strength D: in erg cm3, (range 10-34～10-38) Dipole strength : Dipole strength Dipole strength represents electronic transition probability of the absorption band.
As electron is promoted from low to high E. states, a momentary electric dipole is generated, called the electric transition dipole moment μ, which is related to D by:
. D is a dot product of μ. Dipole strength : Dipole strength The following relations calculate D in terms of Δλ (the bandwidth at εmax/2), εmax, and λmax: