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Safe and adequate supplies of water are vital for agriculture, industry, recreation and human consumption. While our supply of water today is largely safe and Adequate. Water purification technologies will contribute significantly to ensuring a safe, sustainable, affordable, and adequate water supply Technological advances in how we purify our water are one important ‘tool’ INTRODUCTIONPowerPoint Presentation: Technologies originally designed to desalinate water are extremely effective in removing contaminants (ranging from naturally-occurring salts to man-made chemicals ) from impaired waters . produce safe water by removing a wider range of contaminants with conventional & advanced water treatment processes. Dissolved or suspended contaminants commonly found in impaired waters include: - Biologics, - Salts (total dissolved solids), - Metals, - Radio nucleotides, - Chemicals, & ‘Pharmaceutics’ : (including such things as caffeine & endocrine disruptors).PowerPoint Presentation: Conventional technologies : BOILING : kills all pathogens, including viruses no special equipment required requires fuel(electricity assumed not available) time consuming impractical for all but a limited amount of water 2 . IODINE/CHLORINE(CHLOROX) TREATMENT : when properly performed, it is effective against almost all pathogens, including viruses- affects taste of water Inexpensive. temperature sensitive. not recommended for long term use. dosage: using ordinary 2% tincture of iodine, 3 drops per quart of CLEAR water & stir thoroughly, allow water to stand for at least 30 min. before using or filtering, for additional protection.PowerPoint Presentation: Simple filtration : Depth filtration : Distillation :PowerPoint Presentation: STABILIZED OXYGEN : A wide variety of manufacturers are producing oxygen-enriched "concentrates" which, when added to water are intended to increase oxygen levels in the body but also act as a mechanism for killing bacteria. some of the products on the market include Aerox , Genesis 1000, Dynamo 2, Aerobic 07, Aquagen and others. Some reports indicate that these products are quite effective in treating water, without the possible side effects of iodine or chlorine/ clorox . NOTE : Excessive amounts of oxygen may dramatically reduce expected body cell lifetimes as well as damage DNA.PowerPoint Presentation: Membrane Technologies : Membrane technologies are the principal components of the advanced desalination & water purification technologies available today. The membrane technologies commercially available today consist of the following: • Microfiltration (MF) membranes – used for turbidity reduction, removal of suspended solids and bacteria. • Ultra filtration (UF) membranes – used for color, odor, volatile organics and virus removal, as well as the removal capabilities listed for MF membranes. • Nano filtration (NF) membranes – used for water softening and sulfate removal. • Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes – used for salt removal for brackish & seawater. • Electro dialysis (ED) membranes – used for salt removal for brackish water.PowerPoint Presentation: RO PROCESSPowerPoint Presentation: Ultra filtration membranes have pore diameters in the range of 10-100 nm, Ultra filtration is a modern solution for removing bacteria and viruses from water. Microfiltration microfiltration membranes have pores of 0.1-1 μm . is used for removal of suspended particles, and in some cases filter bacteria and most viruses. combinationPowerPoint Presentation: Both NF and RO membranes are non-porous. Today RO is the most common process for purification of water from seawater or brackish water. A semi-permeable membrane is used to separate salts from water. A high pressure is induced to overcome an osmotic pressure, & water permeation is induced from saline water to freshwater through the membrane, while salts are rejected.PowerPoint Presentation: Ion exchangePowerPoint Presentation: Working on the Vander Walls forces principle, polymeric adsorbents INDION PA 500 & INDION PA 800 are capable of removing non-polar substances from polar streams. Moreover, the surface of the adsorbents can be reactivated for repeated use, offering a distinct cost and environmental benefit. USES : Used by process industries as well as the bio-technology and pharma industries for applications such as removal of phenol from hydrochloric acid, removal of polyphenol and chlorophyll from herbal extracts and removal of non-polar impurities from fermentation broth. Polymeric AdsorbentsPowerPoint Presentation: Brine Softening Resin INDION BSR was developed to address the problem of membrane fouling in the chlor alkali industry. The membranes used in the membrane cell based manufacturing process in the chlor alkali industry are very expensive but highly susceptible to fouling by the Ca and Mg present in the brine. By reducing the Ca & Mg in the brine to acceptable limits, INDION BSR effectively eliminates the problem of membrane fouling, and has been found a very effective solution by many manufacturers. Indicator Grade Mixed Bed Resins This indicating variant which makes the resin change colour on exhaustion, has been introduced to increase user friendliness of mixed bed resins.PowerPoint Presentation: U.V. radiation UV radiation can be an effective viricide and bactericide. Disinfection using UV radiation is commonly used in wastewater treatment applications and also used in drinking water treatment. Many bottlers of spring water use UV disinfection equipment to sterilize their waterPowerPoint Presentation: Conventional water treatment plants typically utilize a hundred-years-old, five-step process: coagulation to improve water clarity; sedimentation to remove suspended solids; filtration; disinfection; &direct delivery or storage. Sometimes all of these five steps are not needed, and sometimes additional steps (treatment using che -addition, soda ash or weak acids, or by filtration with granular activated carbon ) are required to meet water quality standards. Conventional water treatments do not remove total dissolved solids. Advanced desalination and water purification utilize methods to remove salts and waterborne threats to human health. These processes include running water through a series of membranes, distilling water and then condensing the purified water steam, freezing water, and several other approaches. Adsorption of solids. All of these technologies are effective at removing salts from water Conventional Water Treatment vs. Advanced Water PurificationPowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.