different types of natural vegetation and wildlife

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NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE:

NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE B Y :-YOGESH PAUL BANGA 8 th A2 8219

CONTENT :

CONTENT NATURAL VEGE TATION FACTORS AFFECTING NATURAL VEGETATION RELIEF CLIMATE ECOSYSTEM TYPES OF VEGETATION IN INDIA LOCATION OF VEGETATIONS TROPICAL RAIN FOREST TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST TROPICAL THORN FOREST MONTANE FOREST WILDLIFE WILDLIFE OF RAIN FOREST WILDLIFE OF DECIDUOUS FOREST WILDLIFE OF THORN FOREST WILDFE OF MONTANE FOREST WILDLIFE OF MANGROVE FOREST WILDLIFE RESERVES LOCATION OF WILDLIFE RESERVE THINGS TO KNOW NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 2

NATURAL VEGETATION :

NATURAL VEGETATION Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is termed as a virgin vegetation. Thus, cultivated crops and fruits, orchards form part of vegetation but not natural vegetation. DO YOU KNOW ? The virgin vegetation, which are purely Indian are known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.   NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 3

FACTORS AFFECTING NATURAL VEGETATION:

FACTORS AFFECTING NATURAL VEGETATION RELIEF :- LAND SOIL CLIMATE :- TEMPERATURE SUNLIGHT PRECIPITATION ECOSYSTEM NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 4

RELIEF:

RELIEF LAND :- Land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly . The fertile level is generally devoted to agriculture. The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grassland and woodlands develop and give shelter to a variety of wild life. SOIL :- The soils also vary over space. Different types of soils provide basis for different types of vegetation. The sandy soils of the desert support cactus and thorny bushes while wet, marshy, deltaic soils support mangroves and deltaic vegetation. The hill slopes with some depth of soil have conical trees. NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 5

CLIMATE:

CLIMATE TEMPERATURE :- The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soil. SUNLIGHT :- Due to longer duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summer. While they grow slowly in winter. PRECIPITATION :- Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to other areas of less rainfall. NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 6

ECOSYSTEM:

ECOSYSTEM Plants occur in distinct groups of communities in areas having similar climatic conditions. The nature of the plants in an area, to a large extent, determines the animal life in that area. When the vegetation is altered, the animal life also changes. All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent and interrelated to each other in their physical environment, thus, forming an ecosystem. Human beings are also an integral part of the ecosystem. NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 7

TYPES OF VEGETATION IN INDIA:

TYPES OF VEGETATION IN INDIA Tropical Rain Forests Tropical Deciduous Forests Tropical Thorn Forests Montane Forests Mangrove Forests NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 8

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NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 9

TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS:

TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS They are at their best in areas having more than 200 cm of rainfall with a short dry season. The trees reach great heights up to 60 meters or even above. There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves. As such, these forests appear green all the year round. Some of the commercially important trees of this forest are Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber and Cinchona. The common animals found in these forests are elephants, monkey, lemur and deer. The one horned rhinoceros are found in the jungles of Assam and West Bengal. These forests are restricted to heavy rainfall Areas of the Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coast have them . NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 10

TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS:

TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS They are also called the monsoon forests and spread over the region receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm. Trees of this forest-type shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in dry summer. The dry deciduous forests are found in areas having rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm. These forests are found in the rainier parts of the peninsular plateau and the plains of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. There are open stretches in which Teak, Sal, Peepal, Neem grow. In these forests, the common animals found are Lion, Tiger, Pig, Deer and Elephant. A huge variety of birds, lizards, snakes, and tortoises are also found here. NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 11

TROPICAL THORN FORESTS:

TROPICAL THORN FORESTS In regions with less than 70 cm of rainfall, the natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes. This type of vegetation is found in the north-western part of the country including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana Acacias, Palms, Euphorbia and Cacti are the main plant species. The stems are succulent to conserve water. Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize evaporation. In these forests, the common animals are rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horses and camels. NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 12

MONTANE FORESTS:

MONTANE FORESTS There is a succession of natural vegetation belts in the same order as we see from the tropical to the tundra region. The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 meters. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominate. Between 1500 and 3000 meters, temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar, are found At higher elevations, temperate grasslands are common. At high altitudes, generally more than 3,600 meters above sea-level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests. The common animals found in these forests are Kashmir stag, spotted dear, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, Shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair. NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 13

MANGROVE FORESTS:

MANGROVE FORESTS Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots of the plants submerged under water. In the Ganga- Brahmaputra delta, sundari trees are found, which provide durable hard timber. Palm, Coconut, Keora, Agar, also grow in some parts of the delta. Royal Bengal Tiger is the famous animal in these forests. Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests. NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 14

WILDLIFE:

WILDLIFE India has more than 89,000 of animal species. The country has more than 1200 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the world’s total. There are 2500 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals.   The elephants , One-horned rhinoceroses , wild ass and camels , Indian bison, blue bull, Chousingha , Gazel and different species of deer , several species of monkeys. India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions Leopards too are found here Ladhak’s freezing high altitudes are a home to yak, the shaggy horned wild ox weighing around one tonne , the Tibetan antelope, the blue sheep, wild sheep, and the Kiang NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 15

WIlDLIFE OF RAIN FOREST:

WIlDLIFE OF RAIN FOREST NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 16

Wildlife OF deciduous forest:

Wildlife OF deciduous forest NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 17

Wildlife OF thorn forest:

Wildlife OF thorn forest NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 18

WIlDLIFE OF montane forest:

WIlDLIFE OF montane forest NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 19

WILDLIFE OF MANGROVE FOREST:

WILDLIFE OF MANGROVE FOREST NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 20

WILDLIFE RESERVES:

WILDLIFE RESERVES In today’s era animal are hunted for human’s needs and many of them are endangered to extinct in a very less time Wildlife reserves are made for such animal species which are endangered Each animal is given his environment Some exampl3es are like tigers , the Tibetan antelope, the bharal , wild sheep, and the kiang , Further more, the ibex, bear, snow-leopard are now rare These animals are in wildlife reserves NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 21

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THINGS TO KNOW:

THINGS TO KNOW Our country India is one of the seventeenmega bio-diversity countries of the world. With about 47,000 plant species India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. There are about 15,000 flowering plants in India which account for 6 per cent in the world’s total number of flowering plants. The country has many non-flowering plants such as ferns, algae and fungi. India also has 89,000 species of animals as well as a rich variety of fish in its fresh and marine waters. It has more than 89,000 of animal species. The country has more than 1200 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the world’s total. There are 2500 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals. NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 23

THANKYOU:

THANKYOU NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 24

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