india after independence,yogita

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SOCIAL – SCIENCE HOLIDAY HOME WORK:

SOCIAL – SCIENCE HOLIDAY HOME WORK HISTORY CHAPTER :12 INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE

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A new and divided nation A constitution is written How were states to be formed Planning for development The nation , sixty years on Content :

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A New and Divided Nation When India became independent in August 1947, it faced a series of very great challenges. The problems of the refugees and of the princely states had to be addressed immediately. In the longer term, the new nation had to adopt a political system that would best serve the hopes and expectations of its population . There were divisions between high castes and low castes, between the majority Hindu community and Indians who practiced other faiths. The citizens of this vast land spoke many different languages, wore many different kinds of dress, ate different kinds of food and practiced different professions.

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Thousands gathered on the occasion of the flag hoisting ceremony at the Red Fort on 15 August 1947

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A Constitution is Written Between December 1946 and November 1949, some three hundred Indians had a series of meetings on the country’s political future. The meetings of this “Constituent Assembly” were held in New Delhi, but the participants came from all over India, and from different political parties. These discussions resulted in the framing of the Indian Constitution, which was adopted on 26 January 1950 . One feature of the Constitution was its adoption of universal adult franchise . All Indians above the age of 21 would be allowed to vote in state and national elections. This was a revolutionary step – for never before had Indians been allowed to choose their own leaders. First only men of property had the vote. Then men who were educated were also added on. Working-class men got the vote only after a long struggle. Finally, after a bitter struggle of their own, American and British women were granted the vote. On the other hand, soon after Independence, India chose to grant this right to all its citizens regardless of gender, class or education. A second feature of the Constitution was that it guaranteed equality before the law to all citizens, regardless of their caste or religious affiliation .

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Indians. The practice of untouchability, described as a “ slur and a blot” on the “ fair name of India”, was abolished. Hindu temples, previously open to only the higher castes, were thrown open to all, including the former untouchables. After a long debate, the Constituent Assembly also recommended that a certain percentage of seats in legislatures as well as jobs in government be reserved for members of the lowest castes. Along with the former Untouchables, the adivasis or Scheduled Tribes were also granted reservation in seats and jobs. The tribals had been deprived of modern health care and education, while their lands and forests had been taken away by more powerful outsiders. The new privileges granted them by the Constitution were meant to make amends for this. Many Indians contributed to the framing of the Constitution. But perhaps the most important role was played by Dr B.R. Ambedkar , who was Chairman of the Drafting Committee, and under whose supervision the document was finalised.

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Jawaharlal Nehru introducing the resolution that outlined the objectives of the Constitution

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How were States to be Formed? As a result of the partition of India, more than a between million people had been killed in riots Hindus and Muslims. Both Prime Minister Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister Vallabhbhai Patel were against the creation of linguistic states. The Kannada speakers, Malayalam speakers, the Marathi speakers, had all looked forward to having their own state. The strongest protests, however, came from the Telugu-speaking districts of what was the Madras Presidency. When Nehru went to campaign there during the general elections of 1952, he was met with black flags and slogans demanding “ We want Andhra”. The protests were so widespread and intense that the central government was forced to give in to the demand. Thus, on 1 October 1953 , the new state of Andhra Pradesh came into being. After the creation of Andhra, other linguistic communities also demanded their own separate states.

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A States Reorganisation Commission was set up, which submitted its report in 1956 , recommending the redrawing of district and provincial boundaries to form compact provinces of Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu speakers respectively. The large Hindi -speaking region of north India was broken up into several states. A little later, in 1960 , the bilingual state of Bombay was divided into separate states for Marathi and Gujarati speakers. In 1966 , the state of Punjab was also divided into Punjab and Haryana , the former for the Punjabi speakers (who were also mostly Sikhs ), the latter for the rest (who spoke not Punjabi but versions of Haryanvi or Hindi).

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The making of Linguistic States Princely States British India Indian provinces and Princely States before 14 August 1947

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*A state ceased to be a “princely state” as and when its prince agreed to merger with India or Pakistan or was defeated. But many of these states were retained as administrative units until 31 October 1955. Hence the category, “erstwhile princely states” for the period 1947-48 to 31 October 1955. Erstwhile Princely States* Other States Indian States before 1 November 1956

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Indian States in 1975

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Lifting India and Indians out of poverty, and building a modern technical and industrial base were among the major objectives of the new nation. In 1950 , the government set up a Planning Commission to help design and execute suitable policies for economic development. There was a broad agreement on what was called a “mixed economy” model. Here, both the State and the private sector would play important and complementary roles in increasing production and generating jobs. Planning for Development In 1956 , the Second Five Year Plan was formulated. This focused strongly on the development of heavy industries such as steel, and on the building of large dams. These sectors would be under the control of the State.

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As Mahatma Gandhi ’s follower Mira Behn wrote in 1949 , by “science and machinery he [mankind] may get huge returns for a time, but ultimately will come desolation. We have got to study Nature’s balance, and develop our lives within her laws, if we are to survive as a physically healthy and morally decent species.”

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Jawaharlal Nehru at the Bhilai Steel Plant . The Bhilai steel plant was set up with the help of the former Soviet Union in 1959. Located in the backward rural area of Chhattisgarh, it came to be seen as an important sign of the development of modern India after Independence.

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The bridge on the Mahanadi river constructed to control the flow of water Bridges and dams became the symbol of development in independent India.

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Work going on at the Gandhi Sagar bandh . This was the first of the four dams built on the Chambal river in Madhya Pradesh. It was completed in 1960.

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The Nation, Sixty Years On On 15 August 2007 , India celebrated sixty years of its existence as a free nation. India is still united, and that it is still democratic, are achievements that we might justly be proud of. Many foreign observers had felt that India could not survive as a single country, that it would break up into many parts, with each region or linguistic group seeking to form a nation of its own. Others believed that it would come under military rule. However, as many as thirteen general elections have been held since Independence, as well as hundreds of state and local elections. There is a free press, as well as an independent judiciary. Finally, the fact that people speak different languages or practise different faiths has not come in the way of national unity.

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On the other hand, deep divisions persist. Despite constitutional guarantees, the Untouchables or, as they are now referred to, the Dalits , face violence and discrimination . In many parts of rural India they are not allowed access to water sources, temples, parks and other public places. And despite the secular ideals enshrined in the Constitution, there have been clashes between different religious groups in many states. Above all, as many observers have noted, the gulf between the rich and the poor has grown over the years. The constitution recognises equality before the law, but in real life some Indians are more equal than others. Judged by the standards it set itself at Independence, the Republic of India has not been a great success. But it has not been a failure either.

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Dharavi in Bombay is one of the world’s largest slums .

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THANKYOU BY YOGITA BISHT VIII B

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