GUC ARCT 702 Legislations - Lecture 12 - Revision 13-12-2018

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GUC ARCT 702 Legislations - Lecture 12 - Revision 13-12-2018

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GUC – German University in Cairo Architecture and Urban Design ARCH 702 Legislation Professional Practice and Contracts Fall 2018 Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Revision 1

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Architectural Profession

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Architect from the Greek word architekton meaning master builder: “One who designs buildings and superintends their construction.”

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• The earliest surviving treatise thesis dissertation study was written in Rome in about 25 BC by Vitruvius. The Ten Books of Architecture • It is one of the most important treatises in the history and theory of architecture. • Called De Architectura it served Renaissance architects such as Leon Battista Alberti as their chief source of inspiration and remained influential up to the 20th century. Vitruvius 20 BC Rome Italia

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Utilitas ... Firmitas … Venustas Commodotoes ... Firmness ... Delighte Functional ... Technological ... Aesthetic Utility ... Structure ... Attractive Use ... Construction … Appearance

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•The profession as we know it today was formalized in the 19 th century. •The 20 th century and especially the last three decades has been a time of explosive growth and change for the profession.

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The transformation from a PRACTICE into a PROFESSION Control the way in which design services were being provided Increase in large-scale public works projects Need for assurance that an architect had the necessary expertise The Architecture Profession

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Professional Competence Education + Licensing Training + Examination

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11 The Design Process

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The Design Process • The process of designing a building space or structure typically consists of design phases. • It is important to understand and remind yourself of these phases to bear in mind exactly what youre trying to accomplish. • And it does take time.

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An Architectural Design Method B A S E D BASED Analysis Program Site Goals Performance Alternatives Briefing Problems Definitions Needs Context Program Site Synthesis Solutions Concept Form Space Preliminary Design Study Models Evaluation Priorities Grading Communicatio n Feedback Selection Optimization Design Drawings Final Models Reports CAD Presentation Communication

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Steps of the BASED Design Process • BRIEFING • Site selection Program formulation Data collection Examples ... • Analysis • Design and Project Data analysis • Identification of Objectives • Synthesis • Formulation of Concepts and Alternatives • Communication of Concepts • Evaluation • Review of Alternatives • Selection of one alternative • Design • Design details • Communication media

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Design Process • Linear Quality Analysis  Synthesis  Evaluation • Non-linear Qualities Flashes of insight … Creative leaps

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16 The Design Concept

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The Design Concept "Good architecture expresses a thought.“ Ludwig Wittgenstein

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What is a Concept • A Concept integrates Site Program and Form according to a holistic idea or vision. • It communicates a Meaning that the architectural designer wishes to communicate to the user and viewer of architecture.

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FORM SPACE Exterior Form Interior Space CONTEXT Site NEED Program Concept Solution Site Climate Building Sun Wind Topography Soil Shape Dimensions Surroundings View Sand Forms Colors Height Functions User Client Areas Relationships Spaces Number Socio-Cultural Vision Proportion Size Scale Rhythm Idea Metaphor Analogy Elements Principles Volumes Symmetry Sketches Drawings Details Asymmetry Balance Texture Color Humidity Gender Budget Schedule Shapes Unity The Concept Variety Organization Material Models Renderings Animations Structure Technical Roads Access Temperature Symbolism Activities Equipment Cultural Context

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Concepts Translations – Visual and Verbal

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Form vs. Function • Form and Function are both important consideration in architecture. • Form does not follow Function nor Function follows Form. • Form and Function Compliment each other.

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Design Influences

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Design Influences Design Influences – Every project situation is different – Different requirements and limitations – Cultural environmental technological aesthetic contexts – Challenges and opportunities.

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Program – Requirements and Limitations – General or Specific descriptive of needs – Suggestive solutions Design Influences

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Community Desires • Public agency ies approvals • To meet objections or to gain support. Design Influences

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Codes and Regulations • Safety requirements • Minimal land use • Light and air zoning • A major force in design that regulates every aspect of design and construction Design Influences

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Building Context and Existing Fabric – The surrounding environment – Influence: –Materials –Fenestration –Color –Detailing – Existing structures Design Influences

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Site and Climate – Physical characteristics: size configuration topography geotechnical etc. – Climate: wind solar orientation temperatures humidity precipitation etc. – Environmental Factors: view existing vegetation drainage etc. – Access – Adjacent land uses and other site factors. Design Influences

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Building Technology – Building configuration materials and systems are rarely arbitrarily chosen and are only partially based on aesthetic criteria. – Dimensions may be dictated largely by mechanical systems or even by the knowledge and preferences of the local construction industry. Design Influences

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Cost • Projects have limited budgets. • Cost considerations significantly influence almost all issues from building size and configuration to material selection and detailing. • Budget: Fixed or flexible Design Influences

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Schedule • Design decisions out of sequence Design Influences

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The client • The Good client: Is there such a thing as "good client" • Some clients have a clear idea of program budget and other project objectives including the final appearance of the building. • Others look to the architect to help them define the project objectives as well as to design a building that meets these goals. Design Influences Design Influences

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Professional Services Provided by Architects

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These activities from the Architects viewpoint may be grouped into 5 major phases of work + 1 post construction phase 1. Pre-Design Phase: Program Definition Feasibility Analysis 2. Design Phase: Schematic Design Design Development 3. Construction Document Phase: Documentation of the Design Intent 4. Bidding and Negotiation Phase: Establishing the Cost of the Design Intent 5. Construction Phase: Administration of the Construction Contract + 1. Post-Construction Phase: Warranty Review Post Occupancy Evaluation Professional Services Provided by Architects

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PRE-DESIGN The range of Pre-Design elements include: • Identification of the clients needs and options • Feasibility and costing studies • Value management studies • Project delivery programs and building procurement advice • Life-cycle cost analysis • Site geotechnical and infrastructure investigations • Detailed project brief preparation. • Master Planning. Professional Services Provided by Architects

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The Value of Pre-design • It is important to extend the pre-design phase as long as possible in order to: • It is defense mechanism against those "hot ideas" that will come up midway through the project. • Invent ways to force yourself not to dive into design immediately • Find ways of getting the client involved in this "discovery phase" • Identify and achieve consensus on the five or six real issues the project brings you to solve Pre-Design

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SCHEMATIC DESIGN Schematic Design is an advance of the preferred planning options while ensuring that the broad spatial and functional planning requirements are achieved. The Schematic Design will result in the following: • Site Plan • Plans elevations and sections of the preferred design • Schedule of proposed materials finishes and signage • Color Board of all materials and finishes • Cost Plan • Schematic Design Report Professional Services Provided by Architects

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DESIGN DEVELOPMENT From the broad brush requirements of the Schematic Design a design proposal is developed and agreed with the client and includes: • Refinement of the function and form • Structural systems • Internal spaces of the building • Mechanical • Electrical • Hydraulic services • More detailed estimates of cost • Provision of time program Professional Services Provided by Architects

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DESIGN DEVELOPMENT From this stage the client will receive the following: • Fully developed Site Plan • Fully developed Plans of each level of the preferred design • Roof Plan slopes materials and penetrations • Elevations of all aspects and general sections • Chosen plans and sections that describe the building form through the overall scheme or part of it at a scale of 1:100 • Part and elevations of typical elements and sections • Schedule of finishes and sample board • A report from the Building Surveyor explaining the approach to the design solution. Professional Services Provided by Architects

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CONTRACT DOCUMENTATION • Drawings and specifications are detailed from the Design Development and may include: • Bills of Quantities sufficient for the calling of competitive tenders and to enable the building to be constructed as intended. • A tender estimate • Coordination and integration of the work of each discipline. Professional Services Provided by Architects

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TENDER EVALUATION When design and documentation is completed the project goes to tender and this service includes the following: • Calling of tenders • Answering tender inquiries • Evaluation of tenders in conjunction with or on behalf of the client • Analysis and advice in respect of tenders received including any necessary negotiations with tenders • The preparation of formal contract documents • Arrangements for the execution of the contract. Professional Services Provided by Architects

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CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION The administration of the contract is carried out including: • Reporting on construction progress and cost • Observance of compliance with the documented intent by periodic inspection of the works • Supplying information checking progress claims and issuing progress certificates negotiating variations and cost adjustments and dealing with claims for extensions of time and other matters included in the building contract. Professional Services Provided by Architects

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POST CONSTRUCTION SERVICES • Manuals for facilities management or maintenance and operation purposes • Systems and Equipment commissioning and adjustment • Periodic maintenance inspections • Replacement cost estimating for insurance purposes • Warranty and operational reviews • Contractor maintenance evaluation • Post-occupancy evaluation • Energy and environmental health surveys. Professional Services Provided by Architects

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Dr. Yasser Mahgoub The Value of Pre-design

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Construction Documents Construction Documents Biding requirements Drawings Contract forms and conditions Addenda Contract modifications Specifications and BoQ’ s

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TENDER EVALUATION When design and documentation is completed the project goes to tender and this service includes the following: • Calling of tenders • Answering tender inquiries • Evaluation of tenders in conjunction with or on behalf of the client • Analysis and advice in respect of tenders received including any necessary negotiations with tenders • The preparation of formal contract documents • Arrangements for the execution of the contract. Professional Services Provided by Architects

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CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION The administration of the contract is carried out including: • Reporting on construction progress and cost • Observance of compliance with the documented intent by periodic inspection of the works • Supplying information checking progress claims and issuing progress certificates negotiating variations and cost adjustments and dealing with claims for extensions of time and other matters included in the building contract. Professional Services Provided by Architects

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Construction Documents Time budget and project phases used in "Typical current practice" 15 Schematic 20 Design Development 40 Construction Documents 5 Bid/Negotiation 20 Construction

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Time budget and project phases used in "Typical current practice"

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Project Delivery Approaches

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Project Delivery Approaches • Owner as contractors • Single prime contract Design Bid Build • Multiple prime contracts • Construction management • Design/Build • Other: – Early award – Fast track

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Design-Bid-Build DBB • This project delivery method is the “traditional” means of delivering a construction project and creates a clear separation between the design and construction process. • Typically the only criteria for selection of a contractor in design-bid-build DBB projects is the lowest construction price.

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Design-Bid-Build DBB • To begin the DBB process: 1. An architect or engineer A/E is hired by an owner to create design documents drawings and technical specifications for a project. In addition the A/E will usually develop a project cost estimate and schedule. 2. Once the design documents are completed a Request for Bids sometimes called a Request for Proposal RFP/RFB is created a released to contractors. 3. Contractors will then evaluate the project documents and provide a price for the work. 4. The A/E is responsible for answering bidder questions and for assisting the owner in evaluating the received bids. 5. Once a bid is selected the owner establishes a contract with the chosen contractor and work begins on the project.

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Design-Bid-Build DBB • The DBB method is typically the most familiar to those in the industry. It also has in theory the ability to deliver a low-cost project. • However since this method isolates the contractor from the design process there is a high potential for project cost increases due to conflicts between the design documents and the constructability of the project in the field.

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Design-Bid-Build DBB • Also selecting a low bidder can result in a decrease in the quality of the finished product as the contractor must often determine ways of achieving a profit on the job working under a budget that was the lowest of all contractors submitting pricing. • In general the DBB process is best used on projects that are simple that are not under a tight time crunch and that have a limited budget.

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Business Management

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ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE • Architectural practice encompasses the activities of organizing managing and documenting the architectural project delivery process as it applies to the modification of the built environment through DESIGN. Organize Document Manage 64

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HAVE A GOOD REASON FOR STARTING YOUR OWN FIRM Having a strong reason to go out on your own is a prerequisite because the risks effort and initial financial investment can be significant. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub

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ARCHITECTURE FIRM STRUCTURE • Small firms with less than 5 people usually have no formal organizational structure depending on the personal relationships of the principals and employees to organize the work. • Medium‐sized firms with 5 to 50 employees are often organized departmentally in departments such as design production business development and construction administration. • Large firms of over 50 people may be organized departmentally regionally or in studios specializing in project types. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub

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Construction Documents Time budget and project phases used in "Typical current practice" 15 Schematic 20 Design Development 40 Construction Documents 5 Bid/Negotiation 20 Construction supervision

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Fees

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There is no best method of compensation each has advantages and disadvantages and each may be more or less appropriate in a particular situation.

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Basic services are divided into five phases: 1. Schematic design 2. Design development 3. Construction documents 4. Bidding or negotiation 5. Construction contract administration

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From cost to price Compensation fee proposal How will the architect be compensated  Lump sum fee  Cost plus  Construction cost  Unit costs  Repetitive units Combination of these approaches

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Services and Compensation Bottom-up planning Starts with the tasks to be performed Identifying who will do them How much time each task will take What each task will cost The total cost is the proposed price compensation or fee

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Services and Compensation Top-down planning Starts with the compensation or fee available to do the project. Backs out the money available for various project tasks.

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Services and Compensation

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Services and Compensation

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Services and Compensation III. Compensation methods The are two fools in every market one asks too little one asks too much. Russian proverb

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Ethics

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Joining a professional society means subscribing to that societys ethical standards. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

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Professionals are granted certain rights by society and in turn they are obligated to meet accepted standards of professional behavior. ETHICS

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ARCHITECT Honesty and Integrity provide a shield of protection to the public welfare and safety.

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By applying the codes of ethics an architect earns the trust and respect of his/her clients and employer. ARCHITECT

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Honesty and good will among architects provide the foundation for maintaining the reputation of their profession.

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The code of ethics provides members with guidelines and rules for fulfilling their obligations to the public clients and users the profession their professional colleagues the building industry and the base knowledge on which the practice of architecture rests. The Code of Ethics

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The code is arranged in three tiers: 1. CANONS: Broad principles of conduct to the discipline the public the client the profession and professional colleagues. 2. ETHICAL STANDARDS: More specific goals toward which members should aspire in professional practice and conduct. 3. RULES OF CONDUCT: The canons and ethical standards are stated in aspirational terms the rules are mandatory and describe the "floor" below which a members actions may not fall. The Code of Ethics

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Example 86

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• The following are the rules of the AIA 2012 Code of Ethics and professional Conduct as a guideline: I. General Obligations II. Obligations to the Public III. Obligations to the Client IV. Obligations to the Profession V. Obligations to Colleagues VI. Obligation to the Environment 88

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Problem: An architect is offered some additional gifts and services in exchange for using superior materials on a remodeling project. This was not detailed in the contract.

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She should: a. Take the offer and use the special materials. b. Reject the offer. c. Ask her boss which of the gifts to accept. d. Accept the gifts but use the materials specified in the contract in order to retain neutrality.

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Building Codes

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The Purpose of Building Codes Provide minimum standards To safeguard life limb health property and public welfare By regulating the design construction quality of materials use and occupancy location and maintenance of all buildings within this jurisdiction.

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Coverage • Specific design and construction requirements based on the occupancy building height floor area availability of fire-fighting capacity and other factors • Required fire resistance of structural elements floor ceilings and fire and party walls • Restrictions on building height • Requirements for compartmentation fire areas • Fire protection systems • Flame-spread ratings for finishes

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Coverage • Egress requirements such as stairs corridors and doors • Access and egress requirements for disabled persons • Light ventilation and other indoor environment requirements • Requirements for energy conservation • Structural requirements for building components • Materials performance and specifications • Requirements for building services systems

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Approaches Code provisions may be written in one of two ways: – Prescriptive requirements: methods and materials that must be used in the building ex. Wall thickness … Preferred by building officials …Easier to administer and enforce. – Performance requirements: Desired results ex. Wall that withstand a certain amount of wind load … Preferred by architects … Flexible

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Enforcement • Done by • Central agency • Building Department • Activities • Review drawings • Issue building permits • Periodically inspect the project for conformance • Maintain public records

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FAR Floor Area Ratio Building Height Setback

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What is the “Setback” The distance between the building and the site lines.

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• Your client has purchased a 2000 m2 site. Zoning for the site allows a maximum FAR Floor Area Ratio of “4” and Footprint no more than “40”. How many stories must the building have to achieve the maximum size allowed

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• Your client has purchased a 2000 m2 site. Zoning for the site allows a maximum FAR Floor Area Ratio of “4” and Footprint no more than “40”. How many stories must the building have to achieve the maximum size allowed • 2000 x 4 8000 • 2000 x 40 800 • 8000 / 800 10 Floors

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Based on the Egyptian Building Code article 98 for a 36 m high building what would be the area and minimum dimensions for: 1 a bedrooms internal light well 2 a toilets and kitchens internal light well

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Based on the Egyptian Building Code article 98 for a 36 m high building what would be the area and minimum dimensions for: 1 a bedrooms internal light well 36 / 4 9 9 x 9 81 m2 2 a toilets and kitchens internal light well 12.5 + 2.5 15 m2 2.5 x 6 or 3 x 5

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Contracts

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The Contract A legal agreement between owner and architect that clearly communicates a project’s terms and conditions determine responsibilities of each party and set expectations for schedule and payment for services.

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Contract Basics • Why have a written contract – Mutual understanding • Better understanding promotes better relationships – Establishing your own rules • Law will govern over silent issues – Sizing up your client • Understand your clients attitudes and motivations – Identifying and allocating risk • Candid discussion of risk fosters agreement between parties

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Project Delivery Methods • Traditional Methods – Design-Bid-Build • Traditional form of project delivery characterized by its three phases dual contracts and linear sequencing of the work. – Negotiated Design Team • Sometimes referred to as design-assist it brings the contractor into the design process.

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Project Delivery Methods • Construction Management – Construction Manager as Advisor • A construction manager is brought to the design team who acts as advisor to the owner. – Construction Manager as Agent • The construction manager is given the authority to act on the owner’s behalf. – Construction Manager as Constructor • The construction manager is hired to act as project coordinator and general contractor.

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Project Delivery Methods • Design-Build – Design-Build • Single point of responsibility for the project. – Design-Build as Developer • Design-build entity takes on some responsibilities of real estate development.

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END

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