ASU History and Theory-Lecture 5-Design Development 18-11-2017

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ASU – Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Department of Architectural Engineering ARC 122: History Theory of Architecture Fall 2017 Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Lecture 5 - Design Development

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• Developing design solutions • Comparison and evaluation • Design Development Stages • Structural Systems • Technical Systems MEP-HVAC-Lighting-Fire Fighting Acoustics Codes …

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Definition of Design Development Phase • Transitional phase of an architect/engineer A/E services in which the design moves from the schematic phase to the contract document phase. • In this phase the A/E prepares drawings and other presentation documents to crystallize the design concept and describe it in terms of architectural electrical mechanical and structural systems. • In addition the A/E also prepares a statement of the probable project cost.

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Design Development Technical Documentation: Ability to make technically clear drawings and write outline specifications.

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Design Development Technical Documentation: Ability to prepare models illustrating and identifying the assembly of materials systems and components appropriate for a building design.

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Design Development Structural Systems: Understanding of the basic principles of structural behavior in withstanding gravity and lateral forces and the evolution range and appropriate application of contemporary structural systems.

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Design Development Building Envelope Systems: Understanding of the basic principles involved in the appropriate application of building envelope systems and associated assemblies relative to fundamental performance aesthetics moisture transfer durability and energy and material resources.

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Design Development Building Service Systems: Understanding of the basic principles and appropriate application and performance of building service systems such as plumbing electrical vertical transportation security and fire protection systems.

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Design Development Life Safety: Ability to apply the basic principles of life-safety systems with an emphasis on egress.

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Design Development Building Materials and Assemblies: Understanding of the basic principles utilized in the appropriate selection of construction materials products components and assemblies based on their inherent characteristics and performance including their environmental impact and reuse.

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THE PROJECT CYCLE

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The Project Cycle

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14 The role of architects in building design throughout history.

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15 100 48 35

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16 An excellent architect is able to understand the design requirements and the system interrelationship along with the building code requirement.

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WORKING DRAWINGS

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Drawings They generally contain:  site and building plans  elevations  sections  details  diagrams and  schedules

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Example • For small projects working drawings and details can be integrated in small number of sheets.

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Example • For medium projects a sufficient number of drawings need to be developed to cover all the required details.

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SITE PLAN • The site plan should show the location of the building in relation to the site boundaries. • All landscape elements streets and pedestrian walkways should be indicated and dimensioned. • A reference point should be identified to related the building to GPS.

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PLANS • All plans should be drawn scale 1100 showing centerlines walls openings external dimensions internal dimensions materials etc.

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SECTIONS • Sections should illustrate vertical information including levels materials dimensions corresponding centerlines and details cross-referencing.

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ELEVATIONS • Elevations should illustrate exterior finishing materials levels dimensions centerlines and details cross-referencing.

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WALL SECTIONS • Wall sections illustrate exterior façade design detailing. They are extremely important illustration to ensure the final apperance of the design.

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Working Drawings Highlights

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Plans

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Plans All necessary dimensions

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Plans Stair symbols

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Plans Window and door identification marks

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Plans Titles or numbers for all rooms spaces

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Plans Materials symbols

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Plans Levels

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Plans All structural features

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Plans Bath Rooms

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Sections Show interior features

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Sections Show complete vertical dimensions

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Sections Indicate materials

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Elevations Grid lines

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Elevations All necessary dimensions

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Elevations Slabs Levels

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Elevations Materials

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Stairs Details

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Stairs Details

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Wall Sections • Show all materials in their proper location and thickness. • Tie the section into the cross-reference system

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DRAWINGS FORMAT

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Drawings Sequence and sheet Formats Organization:  Site work  Architectural drawings  Structural  Mechanical  Plumbing  Electrical  Any special disciplines COVER SHEET

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Drawings Sequence and sheet Formats Standards:  Sheet size  Layout  Title blocks

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Each module is identified by a letter and a number. Drawing may comprise one or more modules. Module identification is established by the coordinates for the lower left hand corner of the module. A B C D 1 2 3 4 5 A B C D 1 2 3 4 5 MODULE C4 Drawing Sheet Coordinate System

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Drawing modules containing graphic or textural info are called drawing blocks. DRAWING BLOCKS Drawing Blocks Drawing Blocks

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The Note Block is the module or modules in the drawing area for General Notes Keynotes and Key Plans. Note Blocks Note Blocks

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Title Block Area Margins Same as Drawing Area Formats Horizontal Text Vertical Text Data Blocks Designer Identification Project ID Block Issue Block Management Block Sheet Title Block Sheet ID Block

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Horizontal Text Format: Title block text is oriented parallel to the bottom of the sheet. The horizontal text format is the most commonly used and is the preferred format. Title Block Formats Title Block Format 1

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Vertical Text Format: Title block text is oriented parallel to the right side of the sheet. Sheet title and sheet ID remain oriented parallel to the bottom of the sheet. Title Block Formats

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Title Block Area Drawing Area Production Data Area Basic Sheet Layout

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Graphic Notation Area Column Grid Dimension Area Title Area Drawing blocks that contain plans elevations sections and details are organized in a format that includes the elements shown. Margin Drawing Module Lines Drawing Block Format

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XXXXX XX XXXXX XXX S E C TI O N C3 X:X GRID XXXX XXX XX XX XXXX XXXX XXX Drawing Block Format - Sample A sample drawing block showing a simple plan layout. Note the column grid and dimension area shaded the graphic and notation area the drawing block title area and the margins.

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DRAWING SYMBOLS Lines Object Lines Dimension/Extension Lines Hidden/Invisible Lines Center Lines C L

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DRAWING SYMBOLS Graphic Symbols - General Wall Section Detail Section Building Section Revision Marker 4 A-6 7 A-5 BB A-4 6

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2 1 0 2 4 Graphic Scales Sheet Keynote Room Identifier 3 101 VESTIBULE D2 A-512 Detail Indicator Column Grid Indicator 2 Reference Symbols refer reader to another part of the document Examples:

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The Note Block is the module or modules in the drawing area for General Notes Keynotes and Key Plans. Note Blocks Note Blocks

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GENERAL SHEET NOTES 1. IIII II III III IIII IIII 2. II III II II IIIII III 3. II IIIII II IIII IIIIII 4. I II IIII III IIIIIII II 5. III I II IIII IIIII III REFERENCE KEYNOTES IIIII.I III III IIII II IIIII.I II II IIIII II IIIII.I I II IIII III IIIII.I III IIIIIII II IIIII.I IIII IIIII III SHEET KEYNOTES 1 III III IIII II 2 III III II II IIII 3 IIII II I II IIII Sheet Keynotes Order of Sequence: General Notes Reference Notes Sheet Keynotes

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Drawings CONDOC SYSTEM G General project requirements Site work TS Topographic survey SB Soil borings data SD Site demolition C Civil L Landscaping

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Drawings CONDOC SYSTEM Major disciplines S Structural M Mechanical P Plumbing FP Fire Protections E Electrical

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Drawings CONDOC SYSTEM Special elements ID Interior design FS Food service SG Signage/graphics FF Furniture/furnishings AA Asbestos abatement Etc.

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Drawings CONDOC SYSTEM Major disciplines A Architecture A000 A001 etc. Schedules master keynote legend general notes A100 A101 etc. Plans A200 A201 etc. Exterior elevations Sections A300 A301 etc. Vertical circulation core plan and details A400 A401 etc. Reflected ceiling plans details A500 A501 etc. Exterior envelope details A600 A601 etc. Architecture interiors

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Drawings Title Block  Name address and phone number of the architectural firm  Project title and address  Owners name and address  Drawing title and sheet number  Names and addresses of consultants  Notation of who worked on the drawing including cjecking  Dates drawings were issued such as for bid permit and construction  Dates of revisions  Architects seal and signature when required  Copyright information

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Drawings Drawings should also include the basic information required to orient the user such as:  Key plans showing location of partial plans in relation to the whole  North arrows  Scales for drawings graphic scales are normally included in case drawings are reduced or CAD generated

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Drawings The Cartooning Process Most firms lay out the drawings very early in the project.  To establish roughly how many and what kinds of plans sections elevations details schedules and other graphic elements will be prepared.  Scale and size on sheet  Order  Interrelationships COVER SHEET

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WD CARTOON SET Assignment • Use A4 size paper to develop a rough sketch of your WD set. • Determine the order of drawings and number __ of __ • Sketch by hand the rough size of each drawing on each sheet • Determine the scale needed • Convert the real dimensions of the building drawings to the desired scale and show on your papers • Make sure that all drawing fit on the size sheet plottable area • Label each drawing include the scale • Add north arrow when appropriate • Add descriptive text if known such as window sill detail east elevation etc. • Add sheet names numbers and drawing title in the border

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COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

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Computer Aided Design

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Sample Project

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Example An Architectural Studio in A College of Engineering Building

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Architectural Plan

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Structural Plan

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Furniture

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Reflected Ceiling

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Tiling

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Lighting Layout

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HVAC

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Fire Protection

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Wall Section

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Wall Section

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Wall Section

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Partial Elevation

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END

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