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Hybrid Rice Status

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WELCOME

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I st COURSE SEMINAR On Present status and future prospects of Hybrid Rice By YADAVENDRA KUMAR I.D. No. - A-4099/07/10 Venue - Seminar Room Seminar Chairman - Dr. Ranjeet Singh Head, Department of G.P.B. Major Advisor - Dr. P. K. Singh Associate Professor, G.P.B DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology Kumarganj, Faizabad

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Introduction History What is Hybrid rice ? How to develop Hybrid Rice? Hybrid rice technology In India and in U.P. Currents status Future prospects Conclusion HIGHLIGHT

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INTRODUCTION Rice ( Oryza sativa L. 2n = 24) is the world’s most important food crop after wheat and maize. Heterosis in rice was reported first by Jones (1926). First hybrid rice combination was put into commercial production in China in 1976. More than 65% area of rice is covered by hybrid rice in China. The father of hybrid rice “Long Ping Yuan”. India is the first country after China to exploit the hybrid rice technology on a commercial scale. India’s hybrid rice project was started in the late 1980’s. Hybrid rice research is being conducted in 12 rice research centers of India. In India, APRH-1 is the first hybrid rice variety released in 1994. More than 35 hybrid rice varieties have been released in India till now. In India, it is grown in 1 million ha. area. About 20- 30 % yield advantage of hybrid rice should be than commercial/check varieties

RICE IN INDIA:

RICE IN INDIA Staple food- Grown in 44 M ha, accounts for 22% of cropped area. Productivity low compared to Global standard. 2.9 MT/Ha against 3.9 MT/ha world productivity Average productivity in China (6.0 MT/Ha)

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Brief history of hybrid rice 1926 - Heterosis in rice reported 1964 - China started hybrid rice research 1970 - China discovered a commercially usable genetic tool for hybrid rice (male sterility in a wild rice = Wide Abortive ) 1974 - First commercial three-line rice hybrid released in China 1976 - Large scale hybrid rice commercialization began in China 1979 - IRRI revived research on hybrid rice 1982 - Yield superiority of rice hybrids in the tropics confirmed (IRRI) 1990s - India and Vietnam started hybrid rice programs with IRRI 1991 - More than 50% of China’s rice land planted to hybrids 1994 - First commercial two-line rice hybrid released in China 1994 - 2010 - Commercial rice hybrids released in India, Philippines and Vietnam.

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Hybrid Rice

What is Hybrid Rice?:

What is Hybrid Rice? The first generation offspring of a rice cross between two genetically diverse parents Hybrid rice is the commercial rice crop grown from F 1 seeds of cross between two genetically dissimilar parents. To exploit the benefits of hybrid rice, farmers have to buy fresh seeds every cropping season.

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How Hybrid Rice? Normal Rice Spikelet (self pollinated crop) Sterile Rice Spikelet (Male Sterility) Hybrid Seed Production (Male Sterile x Normal Rice)

Why Hybrid Rice?:

Why Hybrid Rice? Heterosis (Hybrid vigor) application to Increase: Productivity (20-30 % of yield advantage), and Economic returns Heterosis A universal phenomenon that F1 generation shows superiority to both parents in agronomic traits or yield It is present in all biological systems and has been exploited commercially in many agricultural crops. Demand for rice is rapidly increasing with the increase in population, specially in under developed countries. Hybrids have shown their ability to perform better under adverse conditions of drought and salinity.

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Challenges: Rapidly increasing population. Food requirement is also expected to increase substantially. Food grain requirement during 2010 – 230 Million Tones Expected requirement during 2020 – 300 Million Tones Declining land and water resources. Only 3.0% rice area (13.20 lakh ha) covered with hybrid rice-Needs to be expanded . Hybrid Rice- for food security and to met challenges

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. Yield potential 15-30% more than high yielding varieties gives higher return and investment. Hybrids are more tolerant to adverse growing conditions e.g.. temporary drought stress, salinity and diseases. Better root growth helps higher fertilizer use efficiency and therefore water & fertilizer saving is ensured. Hybrid rice for food security & sustainability

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How is hybrid rice developed? Rice is strictly self-pollinated crop. Therefore, for developing commercial rice hybrids, use of a male sterility system is essential. Male sterility by genetic or non-genetic machanism makes the pollen unviable and such rice spikelets are incapable of setting seeds through selfing. Thus, a male sterile line can be used as female parent of a hybrid. The seed set on male sterile parents is the hybrid seed which is used for growing the commercial hybrid crop. Male sterility systems in rice The following genetic and non-genetic male sterility systems are known for developing rice hybrids: Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility. Environmental-sensitive genetic male sterility. Chemical-induced male sterility.

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Hybrid Rice Technology “A Success Story in China” Hybrid Rice Prof. Yuan Long Ping (left), Father of Hybrid Rice Historical Development 1964: Research on hybrid rice started 1970: A wild rice with aborted pollen was identified 1974: First set of hybrids was developed 1976: Hybrid rice released to the farmers ~ 15 m ha (65%) area came under hybrid rice

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Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), initiated a goal oriented programme on hybrid rice research and development in December, 1989. The research network consists of 12 active research centers across the country each with a specific mandate. 35 rice hybrids have been released in the country so far. Out of these, 23 have been developed by the public sector and remaing are from private sectors Most widely cultivated rice hybrids are : PA 6444, PHB 71, PA 6201, KRH 2, Sahyadri, Suruchi 5401, Pant Sankar Dhan 1 and DRR 1. The first superfine grained aromatic hybrid Pusa RH 10 is becoming popular in basmati belt of north-western India. Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan-3 is the first hybrid released for saline-alkaline soils of Uttar Pradesh. DRR 2 and Pant Sankar Dhan-1 are the promising early hybrids. During 2005, hybrids were grown in the country in an estimated area of around 750000 ha. Hybrid rice technology

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Present Status

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ICAR initiated hybrid rice breeding in India in 1989 in collaboration with IRRI, through National Network and first set of hybrids released in 1994. The research network consists of 12 active research centers across the country each with a specific mandate. UNDP/FAO supported the programme since 1991-2000. ICAR supported the programme under NATP until 2004. 35 rice hybrids have been released and many identified in the country so far. The rise in hybrid rice area has remained very slow; reaching less than a million ha. in about 12 years i.e. about the same duration during which China’s hybrid rice area surpassed 15 million ha. Rice improvement program in India continued to treat it an adhoc project mode. In India, only CMS based hybrid seed production is done. Hybrid rice breeding programme in India

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Area, (m ha) Production, (m t) Yield, t / ha Total Rice 28.17 176.55 6.20 Conventional Rice 13.17 73.00 5.60 Hybrid Rice 15.00 103.50 6.90 Hybrid Rice (2010)

Rice hybrids released in India :

Rice hybrids released in India S No Name of hybrids/year of release Duration (days) Yield (t/ha) Yield adv. Over check (%) Release for the state of Hybrid Check 1 APRH-1 (1994) 130-135 7.14 5.27 ( Chaitanya ) 35.4 Andhra Pradesh 2 APRH-2 (1994) 120-125 7.52 5.21 (Chaitanya) 44.2 Andhra Pradesh 3 MGR-1 (1994) 110-115 6.08 5.23 (IR-50) 16.2 Tamilnadu 4 KRH-1 (1994) 120-125 6.02 4.58 ( Mangala ) 31.4 Karnataka 5 CNHR-3 (1995) 125-130 7.49 5.45 (Khitish) 37.4 West Bengal 6 DRRH-1 (1996) 125-130 7.30 5.50 (Tellahamsa) 32.7 Andhra Pradesh 7 KRH-2 + (1996) 130-135 7.40 6.10 (Jaya) 21.3 A.P., Karnataka, T.N., Tripura, Maharashtra, Haryana, Uttranchal and Rajasthan 8 Pant Sankar Dhan-1 (1997) 115-120 6.80 6.20 (Pant Dhan-4) 9.70 Uttar Pradesh 9 CORH-2 (1998) 120-125 6.25 5.20 (ADT-39) 20.20 Tamil Nadu 10 ADTRH-1 (1998) 115-120 7.10 4.90 (ASD-18) 44.90 Tamil Nadu 11 Sahyadri-1 (1998) 125-130 6.64 4.89 (Jaya) 35.80 Maharashtra 12 Narendra Sankar Dhan-2 (1998) 125-130 6.15 4.94 (Sarjoo-52) 24.50 Uttar Pradesh 13 PHB-71 (1997) *+ 130-135 7.86 6.14 (PR-106) 28.00 Haryana, U.P. and T.N.

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14 PA-6201 (2000) *+ 125-130 6.18 5.03 (Jaya) 22.90 Eastern States, A.P., Karnataka and T.N. 15 PA-6444 (2001) *+ 135-140 6.18 4.91 (Jaya) 24.40 U.P., Bihar, Tripura, Orissa, A.P., Karnataka and Maharashtra 16 Pusa RH-10 (2001) + 120-125 4.35 3.11 (Pusa Bas.-1) 39.90 Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Western U.P. 17 RH-204 * (2003) + 120-126 6.89 5.62 (Jaya) 22.60 South (A.P., Karnataka, T.N.), North West (Haryana, Uttaranchal and Rajasthan) 18 Suruchi-5401 * (2004) + 130-135 5.94 4.97 (Jaya) 19.50 Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra 19 Pant Sankar Dhan-3 (2004) 125-130 6.12 4.99 (Pant Dhan-12) 22.60 Uttaranchal 20 Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan-3 (2005) 130-135 5.15 3.86 (Narendra Usar Dhan-2) 33.41 Saline and Alkaline areas of U.P. 21 DRRH-2 (2005) + 112-116 5.35 4285 (PHD-1) 24.90 Haryana, Uttaranchal, West Bengal and T.N. 22 Rajlakshmi (CRHR-5) 130-135 5.71 4.47 (Tapaswini) 27.90 Irrigated areas of Orissa 23 Ajay (CRHR-7) 130-135 6.07 4.47 (Tapaswini) 35.90 Irrigated areas of Orissa 24 Sahyadri-2 115-118 6.50 5.2 25.00 Maharashtra 25 Sahyadri-3 123-126 7.50 6.4 17.00 Maharashtra 26 HKRH-1 135-139 9.41 8.17 (HKR-126) 15.20 Haryana 27 CORH-3 130-135 6.15 4.90 (ADT-39) 25.50 Tamil Nadu * Private hybrids; + Hybrids released by CVRC

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28 CORH-4 29 MPH-516 (1994) 30 MPH-517 (1994) 31 MPH-518 (1994) 32 CORH-1 33 VRH-4 34 JKRH-2000 6.22 WB, Orissa and Bihar 35 Sahyadri-4 5.59 Punjab, Haryana, UP, WB, and Maharastra * Private hybrids; + Hybrids released by CVRC, * Hybrids released by sVRC

>Distinct superiority of hybrids over the low yield base of existing varieties > Hybrids fit well in cropping system and escape drought owing to short duration >Proactive campaigning by the private sector HYBRID SEED SALES-STATE WISE (2002-2010) Quantl. :

>Distinct superiority of hybrids over the low yield base of existing varieties > Hybrids fit well in cropping system and escape drought owing to short duration >Proactive campaigning by the private sector HYBRID SEED SALES-STATE WISE (2002-2010) Quantl . Year 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 U.P. 20000 26000 31000 41000 46000 58000 57000 69500 P.B. 7600 8500 10000 16000 21000 26000 31000 35000 BIH/JHA 8000 8800 10000 11000 13000 14500 18000 19000 CG 5500 6000 6000 5000 5500 6500 6300 6600 OTHER 1500 3230 5600 8510 9000 9300 9500 10000 TOTAL 42600 52530 62600 81510 94500 114300 121800 134100 Hybrid Rice success in UP: Why?

Companywise Sales 2010(In U.P.):

Companywise Sales 2010(In U.P.) SN Company Sales Quantity Mt 1 Bayer 3800 2 Pioneer 1100 3 US agri 250 4 JK 300 5 Devgen 250 6 Delta 200 7 Dhaanya 125 8 Yashoda 100 9 Nath 200 10 Advanta 125 11 Others 500 TOTAL 6950

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Future prospects

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High profit margins (75 Rs/kg)- very attractive to seed companies. Development of aromatic rice hybrids will be more remunerative of Indian farmers- PRH 10 (Pusa 6A x PRR 78) first tropical aromatic hybrid. Assured seed replacement- more demand for seed supply. Improvement is hybrid rice technology will further reduce the cost of seed. Present calculations are at productivity level for 1250 kg per ha. There is a prospect to achieve 2500 kg/ha. Hybrid rice seed production technology is both labour and knowledge intensive. Hybrid seed production demands more additional man days/ha. Rural employment generating technology like hybrid cotton technology. Additional operations require in hybrid rice seed production. Differential seeding. Differential transplanting of seed and pollen parent. Gap filling. Roguing. Flag leaf clipping. GA­ 3 application. Supplementary pollination. Separate harvesting of pollination row. Careful harvesting, threshing and post harvest handling of seed and pollen parent. Future prospects of hybrid rice technology

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Rice grain quality of inbreds and hybrids* Trait Inbred Hybrid Total Milling (%) 69.1 68.2 Whole Milling (%) 48.7 45.4 Chalk (%) 13.5 20.6 Amylose (% 19.8 20.6 GT 4.3 5.5 Length 6.9 7.1 L/W 3.2 3.3 Data from National Cooperative Testing (NCT), Philippines, 2009-2010 Future Opportunity: Improve hybrid rice grain quality

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Future Opportunity: Improve agronomic management and deployment strategy ShanYou 63 grown under different nitrogen management (S. Peng, IRRI) Unhealthy Healthy canopy

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Proposed Area coverage and Seed requirement under Hybrid Rice during Kharif 2011 & 2012 States Area (Ha) Quantity (MT) 2011 2012 2011 2012 Uttar Pradesh 15,40,000 2310000 2,31,000 346500 Bihar 68,000 102000 10200 15300 Jharkhand 1,00,000 150000 15,000 22500 Chattisgarh 1,30,000 195000 19,500 29250 Tamil Nadu 20,000 30000 3,000 4500 Orrisa 40,000 60000 6,000 9000 Madhya Pradesh 13,300 19950 1,995 2993 West Bengal 9,000 13500 1,350 2025 Maharashtra 6,500 9750 975 1463 Andhra Pradesh 5,400 8100 810 1215 Assam 55,000 82500 8,250 12375 Karnataka 3,000 4500 450 675 Tripura 10,330 15495 1,549 2324 TOTAL 20,00,530 3000795 300079 450119

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Share of public & private hybrids for meeting the seed requirement during Kharif 2011 & 2012 Particulars 2011 2012 Total expected area (lakh ha) 20 30 Total Seed requirement (lakh q) 3.0 4.5 Contribution of Public hybrid @ 10% ( lakh q) 0.30 0.45 Contribution of Private hybrid @ 90% ( lakh q) 2.70 4.05

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Proposed Strategy Private Hybrids: Own production plan drawn by them for the production of about 3.0 lakh q of different hybrids developed by them during 2010-11. Major producers - Bayer Bio Sciences Pioneer Overseas Corporation Mahyco Ltd. Syngenta India Ltd. JK Agri Genetics Ltd. Advanta India Ltd. Devgen Pvt. Ltd .

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Proposed Strategy Close monitoring of the seed production by the public & private seed companies to be carried out by the Ministry. State Govt. should constitute the State Monitoring Committee which should provide district-wise area and seed requirement of Hybrid Rice. The State Govt. should invariably place timely confirmed indents to the public & private seed companies and also ensure timely lifting.

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The state should select the promising hybrids based on their performance in demonstrations as assessed in collaboration with SAUs. Information on the harvesting, processing, packing and distribution of the hybrid seeds to be done from time to time. Review of the progress of seed lifting and timely distribution of the seeds by the State Agriculture Departments. Cont…

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Action points for the State Government State Government which are popularizing hybrid rice seed production should organize seed production successfully in the district already identified for seed production in the respective state. Identification of districts & area for popularization of commercial cultivation of hybrid rice during Kharif 2011. Educating the farmers about the advantage of hybrid rice over high yielding varieties using following methods.

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Through Mass Media like, Doordarshan & All India Radio. Through distribution of pamphlets which may contain the special package of practices to be adopted for the cultivation of hybrid rice. Through demonstration at different potential areas in comparison to the local best high yielding varieties. Constitute State level committee associating representatives of Agriculture department, SAU, SSC & KVKs to chalk out action plan as well as monitoring for achieving the chosen targets.

Morphological Model of Super High-yielding Hybrid Rice:

Morphological Model of Super High-yielding Hybrid Rice Plant height = 100 cm, with culm length = 70 cm Uppermost three leaves: Flag leaf, long, 50 cm, higher than the panicle top 20 cm. The 2 nd leaf from the top: 10% longer than the flag leaf, and over the top of the panicle. The 3 rd leaf = the middle position of the panicle Erect: the leaf angles of the flag, 2 nd and 3 rd leaves are around 5, 10, 20 degrees, till mature Narrow, V-shape and thick: narrow with 2 cm when flattened. Plant type: moderate compact with moderate tillering capacity; drooping panicles after filled, above ground ~ 60 cm, erect-leaved canopy without appearance of the panicles Panicle weight and number: grain weight per panicle = 5 g, 2.7 million panicles per hectare. Leaf area index (LAI) and ratio of leaf area to grains: the LAI is ~ 6.5 based on the uppermost three leaves, the ratio of leaf area to grain weight is 100 : 2.2-2.3, meaning that to produce 2.2-2.3 grams of rice, 100 cm2 of the upper three functional leaves are needed. Harvest index > 0.55

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Package for cultivation of hybrid rice Activity Requirement Seed rate 15 kg ha -1 Seedling density (in nursery) 15-20 m -2 Spacing 15 x 15 or 20 x 15 cm Seedling per hill 1 Nitrogen levels 120-150 kg ha -1 (Based on soil fertility) to be given in three splits Phosphorus and potassium 60:60 kg ha -1 Potash to given in two splits Source: Viraktamath, B.C.; Illyas Ahmad, M. and Singh, A.K. (2006). Hybrid rice. Indian Farming , 56 (7) : 25-30.

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Conclusion Overall estimation of net return is about 28 percent higher from hybrids than conventional varieties on aggregate basis. The hybrids fits well in cropping systems and escape drought owing to their shorter duration. The available hybrids are popular in the irrigated upland to medium lands. However, there is need to develop hybrids suited to rainfed lowlands. Improvement of hybrid rice technology will further reduce the cost of seed; Present calculation are at productivity level for 1250 kg ha -1 . There is a prospect to achieve 2500 kg ha -1 Hybrid rice seed production technology is both labour and knowledge intensive.

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Virmani, S.S.; Viraktamath, B.C.; Casal, C.L.; Toledo, R.S.; Lopez, M.T. and Manalo, J.O. Hybrid Rice Breeding Manual. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. Viraktamath, B.C. (2006). New Frontiers in Hybrid Rice Technology. Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Ram, H.H. and Singh, H.G. (2005). Crop Breeding and Genetics, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. pp. 47, 73. Chahal, G.S. and Gosal, S.S. (2003). Principles and Procedures of Plant Breeding: Biotechnological and Conventional Approaches, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 8. Singh, B.D. (2005). Plant Breeding: Principles and Methods, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. pp. 234 V. N. Nguyen (1999). Recent Developments and Future Outlooks in Global Hybrid Rice Development and use. Paper prepared for third meeting of GRUTHA and Advanced Rice Breeding Working Groups, 20-24 September 1999, Goiana, Brazile. Arun Aryan Rice microspore culture: a fast–tract to new varieties IREC farmers’ Newsletter, No. 171,Summer2006. “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/doubled_haploidy” REFERENCES

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