urbanization

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Slide 1:

Topic: Urbanisation growth: Global Trends and Patterns. Name:Iffat J ehan Roll no: 02 Concerned Prof: Dr M.sultan Bhat .

Urbanisation:

Urbanisation refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas ;the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas and the ways in which society adapts to the change. It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more and more people begin living and working in central areas. DEFINING URBAN : The word URBAN has two facets: 1.Urban as entity : four principal methods are employed to identify urban places. a)Population size. b)Economic base. c)Administrative criteria. d)Functional definitions. 2.Urban as the quality: in contrast to definition of city as physical entity ,the concept of urban as a quality is related more to the meaning of urban places and the effect of the urban milieu on peoples lifestyles and vice versa. Urban geographers have sought to identify URBAN meaning through two main approaches : a)Cognitive mapping . b)Urbanisation as a way of life.

Slide 3:

From the development of earliest cities in M esopotamia and E gypt until 18 th century an equilibrium existed between the vast majority of population who engaged in subsistence agriculture in a rural context and small centres of population in the towns where economic activity consisted primarily of trade at markets and manufacturing on a small scale. Due to the primitive and relatively stagnant state of agriculture throughout this period the ratio of rural to urban population remained at an equillibrium.With the onset of agricultural and industrial revolution in the late 18 th century this relation was finally broken and an unprecedented growth in urban population took place over the course of the 19 th century both through continued migration from countryside and due to tremendous demographic expansion .In England the proportion of population living in cities jumped from 17% in 1801 to 72% in 1891,for other countries the figure was 37% for F rance, 41% for P russia and 28% for the Unites S tates.

Global trends and patterns of urbanisation.:

Global trends and patterns of urbanisation. only about 30%of the world population lived in urban areas in 1950. The proportion rose to 50% by 2007. Projected urban share of global population in 2030 is 60%

Slide 20:

There has been considerable variation across regions in rates of urbanisation since 1950.The rate of urbanisation in Asia fluctuated widely mainly as a result of a stagnation of the urbanisation process in china in late 1960s and early 1970s and its subsequent upturn. Europe ,Northern America and Oceania on the other hand each experienced a period of stable urbanisation In Latin America and Caribbean the rate of urbanisation has declined smoothly over past 6 decades .Africa is currently urbanizing region from 2020 to 2050.urbanization in developing countries has proceeded faster than in developed countries.

Slide 21:

The urban population of the world is expected to increase by more than twothirds by 2050 with nearly 90% of the increase to take place in urban areas of Africa and Asia.The worlds urban population is now close to 3.9 billion and is expected to reach 6.3 billion in 2050.Asia despite its lower level of urbanisation is home to 53% urban population in the world. Europe ha a second highest share of worlds urban population that is 14% followed by Latin America and Caribbean with 13%.over the next four decades Africa and Asia will experience the marked increase in their urban population. By mid century the urban population of Africa is likely to triple and that of Asia to increase by 61%.As a consequence close to 90% increase in world urban population will take place in urban areas if Africa and Asia. In 2050 most of the urban population of the world will be concentrared in Asia that is 52% and Africa with 21%

Income and Urbanisation:

Income and Urbanisation While the high income countries of today have been highly urbanised for several decades ,upper middle income countries have experienced the fastest pace of urbanisation since 1950.In 1950 a majority (57%) of the population in high income countries already lived in urban areas. T heir level of urbanisation is expected to rise further from 80% today to 86% in 2050.By contrast in the upper middle income countries of today, only 20% of the population lived in urban areas by 1950 but these countries urbanised rapidly and are now 63% urban. The percentage is expected to rise to 79% urban by 2050.Countries such as Brazil,China,Iran.Mexico are in this group and have experienced both rapid urbanisation and rapid growth of Gross National Income. In the lower middle and lower income countries the pace of urbanisation has been slower until now. Nevertheless this group of counties expected to experience faster urbanisation than others in the coming decades. In 2014 the proportion of population living in urban areas was 39% in lower middle income countries and 30% in low income countries. B y 2050 these countries are expected to reach an average of 57% and 48% urban respectively.

Slide 25:

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