Chapter 6 : Chapter 6 Organizing the Business Enterprise What is Organizational Structure? : What is Organizational Structure? Specification of the jobs to be done within an organization and the ways in which they relate to one another. This allows the organization to achieve its goals. At some organizations the structure is rigid, at other it is more flexible. Determinants of Organization : Determinants of Organization Every business needs structure to operate. Organizational structure varies according to a firm’s mission, purpose, and strategy.
Size, technology, and changes in environmental circumstances also influence structure. Although all organizations have the same basic elements, each develops the structure that contributes to the most efficient operations. Formal Organization expressed through an : Formal Organization expressed through an Organization Chart
Diagram depicting a company’s structure and showing employees where they fit into its operations
The formal Organization chart also reflects the
Chain of Command
Reporting relationships within a company The Organizational Chart : The Organizational Chart Contemporary Landscape Services, Inc.
Mark Ferguson Retail Shop
Manager Buyer Office Manager Buyer Supervisor Residential Manager Commercial Manager 6 - 5 The Building Blocks of Organizational Structure : The Building Blocks of Organizational Structure The first step in developing the structure of any business, large or small, involves two activities:
Determining who will do what
Determining how people performing certain tasks can best be grouped together Specialization and Growth : Specialization and Growth In a very small organization, the owner may perform every job.
As the firm grows, however, so does the need to specialize jobs so that others can perform them.
Adam Smith in 1776 discovered if each of ten workers did all the steps of making pins each could make 200 a day. By specialization the group could make 48,000 a day.
Remember also that organizations can overdo specialization. Why? Departmentalization : Departmentalization Departmentalization
Process of grouping jobs into logical units
Separate company unit responsible for its own costs and profits
Some company operations do not generate profits Different method of Departmentalization : Different method of Departmentalization Customer Departmentalization
Departmentalization according to types of customers likely to buy a given product
Departmentalization according to specific products being created
Departmentalization according to production processes used to create a good or service Departmentalization : Departmentalization Geographic Departmentalization
Departmentalization according to areas served by a business
Departmentalization according to groups’ functions or activities Multiple Forms of Departmentalization : Multiple Forms of Departmentalization 6 - 11 President Functional Departmentalization Geographical Departmentalization Product Departmentalization Establishing the Decision-Making Hierarchy : Establishing the Decision-Making Hierarchy Who makes which decisions? The answer almost never focuses on an individual or even on a small group. The more accurate answer usually refers to the decision-making hierarchy. Developing a Decision-Making Hierarchy : Developing a Decision-Making Hierarchy Assign Tasks: Determine who can make decisions and specify how they should be made.
Give the authority to make decisions and the responsibility or obligation to make them. Authority and responsibility go hand in hand. Performing Tasks : Performing Tasks Perform Tasks: Implementing decisions that have been made. This involves
Assignment of a task, responsibility, or authority by a manager to a subordinate
Liability of subordinates for accomplishing tasks assigned by managers Fear of Delegating : Fear of Delegating Many managers actually have trouble delegating tasks to others.
This is especially true in small businesses where the owner-manager started out doing everything. Why do some small business managers have trouble delegating effectively? : Why do some small business managers have trouble delegating effectively? They feel that employees can never do anything as well as they can.
They fear that something will go wrong if someone else takes over a job.
They lack time for long-range planning because they are bogged down in day-to-day operations.
They sense they will be in the dark about industry trends and competitive products because of the time they devote to day-to-day operations. What can small business managers do to delegate effectively? : What can small business managers do to delegate effectively? Admit that they can never go back to running the entire show and that they can in fact prosper—with the help of their employees.
They must learn to let go. Four reasons some managers in big companies don’t delegate as much or as well as they should: : Four reasons some managers in big companies don’t delegate as much or as well as they should: They fear that subordinates don’t really know how to do the job
They fear that a subordinate might “show the manager up” in front of others by doing a superb job
They desire to keep as much control as possible over how things are done
They simply lack the ability to effectively delegate to others How can managers in big companies learn to delegate more effectively? : How can managers in big companies learn to delegate more effectively? All managers should recognize that they can’t do everything themselves.
If subordinates can’t do a job, they should be trained so that they can assume more responsibility in the future.
Managers should recognize that if a subordinate performs well it also reflects favorably on the manager.
A manager who simply doesn’t know how to delegate should seek specialized training in how to divide up and assign tasks to others. Distribute Authority: Determine whether the organization is to be centralized or decentralized. : Distribute Authority: Determine whether the organization is to be centralized or decentralized. Centralized Organization
Organization in which most decision-making authority is held by upper-level management
Organization in which a great deal of decision-making authority is delegated to levels of management at points below the top This is the current trend.
Span of Control
Number of people supervised by one manager Flat Organizational Structure --Vertical Structure. : Flat Organizational Structure --Vertical Structure. Characteristic of decentralized companies with relatively few layers of management and relatively wide spans of control Typical Law Firm Relatively wide span of control 5 - 21 Tall Organizational Structure -Vertical : Tall Organizational Structure -Vertical Characteristic of centralized companies with multiple layers of management and relatively narrow spans of control United States Army 5 - 22 Relatively narrow span of control. At lower levels, where tasks are similar and simpler, span of control widens. Line and Staff Organization—Line do the mainline functions/Staff assist : 6 - 23 Clark Equipment Corp. Line and Staff Organization—Line do the mainline functions/Staff assist Staff
Managers Committee & Team Authority—Horizontal Organization—also becoming more popular. : Committee & Team Authority—Horizontal Organization—also becoming more popular. Authority granted to committees or work teams involved in a firm’s daily operations Basic Forms of Organizational Structure : Basic Forms of Organizational Structure Organizations can structure themselves in almost an infinite number of ways based on the specialization, departmentalization, or decision-making hierarchies.
The four basic forms of organizational structure that reflect the general trends followed by most firms are: Functional Divisional Matrix International Functional Organization : Functional Organization Form of business organization in which authority is determined by the relationships between group functions and activities Company Structured Around Basic Business Functions Marketing
Department Divisional Organization : Divisional Organization Organizational structure in which corporate divisions operate as autonomous businesses under the larger corporate umbrella Food Service Division Infant Foods Division Condiments Division Star-Kist Tuna Division Pet Foods Division Frozen-Foods Division Misc. Products Division Division: Department that resembles a separate business in producing and marketing its own products Matrix Organization : Matrix Organization Organizational structure in which teams are formed and team members report to two or more managers A matrix is a highly flexible form that is readily adaptable to changing circumstances.
Matrix structures rely heavily on committee and team authority.
Some companies use the matrix organization as a temporary measure to complete a specific project. The end of the project usually means the end of the matrix. Slide 29: Area Specialists Martha Stewart 6 - 29 Media Group Merchandising Group Matrix Organization at International Organization : International Organization Approaches to organizational structure developed in response to the need to manufacture, purchase, and sell in global markets CEO Retail Division A Retail Division B International Division Latin America Europe Asia Organizational Design for the21st Century : Organizational Design for the21st Century Boundaryless Organizations minimize or eliminate traditional boundaries and structures.
Team Organizations having little or no underlying functional hierarchy and rely almost exclusively on project-type teams.
Virtual Organizations have little or no formal structure. They typically have only a handful of permanent employees, a very small staff, and a modest administrative facility. Virtual Organization : Virtual Organization 6 - 32 Contracted Manufacturing in Asia Contracted Administrative Services Contracted Distribution & Logistics Contracted Sales & Marketing Accounting
Human Resources Finance
Management Informal Organization : Informal Organization The formal organization of a business is the part that can be seen and represented in chart form.
The informal organization within which people do their jobs in different ways and interact with other people in ways that do not follow formal lines of communication. The informal organization is sometimes just as powerful, if not more powerful, than the formal structure. Formal versus Informal Organizational Systems : Formal versus Informal Organizational Systems Informal Groups
Groups of people who decide to interact among themselves
Informal communication network that runs through an organization