Direction and Supervision-yashita

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management concepts and practices

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Direction and Supervision:

Direction and Supervision

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Definition According to Dale “Direction is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best to their ability” Direction is that part of management which actuates the people to work efficiently and effectively. Direction involves communicating and providing leadership and motivation to the people to contribute to the best of the capabilities for the achievement of objectives of the enterprise.

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Features Deals with people :- Direction deals with people. It is inspiring people to achieve goals. To this end, it seeks to create harmonious relationships between people. People are not primarily interested in enterprise objectives, they have objectives of their own. Directing is, therefore, a complex function as managers have to deal with people having diverse goals. Seeks performance :- Direction makes things happen. It translates plans into action. It makes people goal oriented . To obtain results, managers

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not only issue orders but also supervise the performance of subordinates. Provides a link :- Direction is the function of management which follows planning, organizing and staffing. It lends meaning to them by ensuring accomplishment of goals. Pervasive :- Direction is performed by all managers at all levels of organization. Every manager is expected to supervise, motivate, lead and communicate with his subordinates to get the results. Dynamic and continuous :- Direction is a dynamic and continuing activity of managers. Whenever plans change, the techniques of direction also change.

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Managerial Function: Direction as a managerial function is the interpersonal aspect of management process by which organizational members are led to understand and contribute effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational objectives. Continuous Activity : Direction is a continuous activity. It does not stop as long as the execution of plan is in process. Pervasive Function : Like other functions of management, direction, is also performed by the managers at all level in the organization. Communication: Acceptance of order is essential if it is to be carried out effectively.

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Importance of Direction Heart of administration Initiates action Helps to achieve objectives Irreplaceable task Helps to utilize capabilities Crucial to an organization’s success Other benefits It integrates individual efforts It facilitates change in the organization It ensures stability and balance in the organization It is helpful in securing employees cooperation It develops human resources and future managers

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Principles of Direction Principle of harmony of objectives: An organization functions best when the goals of its members are in complete harmony with the goals of the organization. Principle of directing objective: The more effective the direction process, the greater will be the contribution of subordinates to organizational goals. Principle of direct supervision: Direction succeeds when it maintains face to face or direct contact with subordinates. Principle of effective leadership: This Principle requires that managers should adopt an appropriate style of leadership to make direction effective.

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Principle of effective communication : Direction becomes effective when the manager knows the feelings and difficulties of his subordinates. Principle of unity of command: to avoid disorder and confusion there should be unity of command. This implies that a subordinate gets orders from just one boss i.e. his immediate boss. Principle of maximum individual contribution: Successes achieved when every person in the organization contributes to the organizational objectives in a maximum way.

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Principle of human relation: this principle states that a manager’s success in directing depends on his ability to create a healthy human relations climate. Principle of participation: Effective direction can be achieved by involving subordinates in decision making process. Principle of follow – through: Direction cannot be fully effective without an efficient control and feedback system. Follow up mechanism will help in keeping a check on deviations and wrong behavior.

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Elements of Direction According to Joseph Massie it consists of four elements. Issuing of orders that are clear complete and within the capabilities of subordinates to accomplish. Continuous training activity in which subordinates or instructed to carry out the particular assignment in the existing situation. Motivation of subordinates to try to meet the expectations of the manager. Maintaining discipline and rewarding those who perform properly.

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Supervision Need for Supervision:- Supervisory jobs differ widely in content, scope and implementations. Some supervisors manage their departments completely, others have authority in limited areas only. Generally, supervisors deal with workers directly and are sometimes called “First line managers”. In the words of G. R. Terry, “Supervision is the achieving of desired results by means of the intelligent utilization of human talents and facilitating resources in a manager that provides the greatest challenge and interest to human talents”. This definition implies that supervision includes:-

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Overseeing employees at work. Intelligent utilization of human talent. Motivating employees to peak performance. Maintenance of good human relations. These days most employees complain of monotonous, dull and uninteresting jobs. When organizational jobs, do not provide any challenge to employees, frustration and resentment are the expected byproducts. A good supervisor fills the vacuum in such cases. He assists employees in doing a good job. He translated the “foggy” management directives to workers in an understandable language.

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The Skills of a Supervisor To perform his job effectively, the supervisor must posses certain skills. According to Prof. Robert Kahn these may be classified into 3 categories: Human skills Technical skills Conceptual skills Human skills:- Try to look at the positive side of the coin first. Judge each group member by his good qualities. Develop helpful and constructive contacts with group members, to bring out the best in them.

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Invite group members to participate in your schemes. Work on common motives and try to improve team work. Thin through a problem objectively, patiently and carefully before determining what action to take. Spot the key figures of each informal group and seek their cooperation. Give instructions clearly, provide sufficient details. Realize the difficulty of introducing any change to individuals rather than groups.

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Supervisory Roles Scientific management roles: Every supervisor needs to appreciate the importance of scientific management under certain conditions. There is only one best way to do a jab and it is the primary duty of a supervisor to study and analyze the jobs carefully and suggest suitable work procedures and methods. According to the scientific management approach, the supervisor is expected to assume the following types of roles: Technician : Supervisors should possess a sound knowledge of the jobs entrusted to them. They must able to solve the technical problems by their own.

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Analyst : Most of the jobs in an organization can be performed efficiently and effectively if they are performed in the right way. It Is the job of a supervisor to find out better and improved ways of performing jobs. Controller : It is the job of a supervisor to provide rewards to productive workers and punishments to unproductive workers.

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Personnel: Select and Place Develop Personnel Evaluate Personnel & Promote Handle Complaints & Grievances Simplify Improve Methods Follow-ups Eliminate Waste Production Know the jobs Get production Quality & Quantity Control the flow of work Maintain proper conditions of production Control Managerial: Plan Organize & Control Communicate Interpret policies, procedures, rules Serve as a key link in the chain of command Education: Teach Inspire Motivate SUPERVISORY DUTIES

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How to Supervise Effectively? Following recommendations for achieving effective supervision:- Practice participation :- Supervisors should allow employees to air their feelings about organizational policies and procedures openly. Employees should be opportunity to ventilate their grievances freely. Even if an employee wrong, the supervisor should listen to him, because this can be a means to relieve tension and establish mutual support. Be aware of the resources available to accomplish the prescribed work :- Supervisors should be able to manage resource flow properly. However, striking a fine balance between human and non-human

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resources is not easy. Know and enforce policies and rules :- Policies define the boundaries of supervisory action. They guide the current and future operations of an organization. In case where rules are violated and policies are not enforced rigorously, rectificational steps should be taken without delay. Find out the existing relationships inside and outside the immediate department being supervised :- To show good performance, supervisors should understand the network of organizational relationships that exist between various departments. They should also know how each department contributes to the realization of overall goals.

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Watch time waste :- Supervisors should view time as a vital and precious possession, which must always be used wisely. They must be able to get the most out of their working hours. This requires that they must clearly define the long and short term objectives and outline the priorities properly.

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Traditional vs. Developmental Supervision Traditional Supervision Developmental Supervision Responsibility increases as one goes up the hierarchy. At lower level, the sense of responsibility is not developed in a healthy way. The supervisor should plan , guide and monitor the work of subordinates closely. Hierarchy Responsibility Workers are as much reliable and trustworthy as the managers. They are capable of achieving results independently. The role of supervisor is to develop this sense and utilize it for achieving goals.

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Supervisor focuses on task accomplishment, irrespective of weather the worker is motivated or interested in doing so or not. Task and personal growth Developmental supervision tries to integrate individual aspirations and organizational requirements. Put the worker on job , assign the work, monitor progress and get things done, sums up the philosophy of traditional supervision. If the individual is put on track whenever he goes off the rails , then group also perform the assigned roles without much of problem. Individual and team Here the individual and groups are treated as complementary and mutually supported units. Develop the team spirit and everything goes smoothly. Good individual performance does not guaranteed the success of group.

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Made BY: Jasbeer Kaur Yashita Rohit Thank You

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