Construction Materials

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Introduction to construction materials:

C. K. Pithawala College of Engineering and Technology, Surat. Introduction to construction materials


GROUP – A7 Name Roll Number Patel Brijesh 122 Desai Jainish 123 Tankariya Hardik 126 Pathak Aloknath 131 Lalluwadia Yash 135


INDEX Stone Brick Lime Cement Timber


Stone Requirements of Stone Structure Appearance-Color Texture Weight Fineness of Grains Durability Strength Hardness Facility of Working and Dressing

Types of Stones:

Types of Stones Igneous Rocks, Sedimentary Rocks, Metamorphic Rocks. Stratified, Unratified, Foliated. Siliceous, Argillaceous, Calcareous.

Types of Stones:

Types of S tones

Uses of Stone:

Uses of Stone They are used in hydraulic structures like dams and bridges. They are used in retaining wall masonry to retain soil. They are used as road metal in road construction. They are used as ballast for permanent way in railways. They are used to make concrete in the form of coarse aggregate.

Properties of Stone:

Properties of Stone Siliceous rocks are hard and durable. They are not easily affected by weathering actions. Argillaceous rocks may be dense and compact or they may be soft. The Durability of calcareous rocks will depend upon the constituents present in surrounding atmosphere. Marble and quartzite have compact crystalline structure. Igneous rocks contain many minerals. Various minerals having wide range of different distinctive characteristics.


Brick Requirements of Bricks The color of the brick should be red or copper and uniform. It should be well burnt in kilns. The surface should be even and free from cracks. The edges should be sharp.

Types of Bricks:

Types of Bricks Conventional / Traditional bricks : Size 23 cm x 11.4 cm x 7.6 cm Standard / Modular : Size : 19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm

Uses of Brick:

Uses of Brick Bricks are used in wall masonry construction of building Used in brick lintel construction Bats of brick are used in concrete in foundation work

Properties of Bricks:

Properties of Bricks They are durable. They are low cost material. They possess good strength. They are easily available. Brick are light in compared to stones.


Lime Requirements of lime it should set easily. It should have low shrinkage. It should not contain impurities. It should be moisture resistant It should slake easily with water.

Types of Lime:

Types of Lime Fat lime. Hydraulic lime 1)feebly 2)moderately 3)eminently Poor lime

Uses of Lime:

Uses of Lime Lime is used in the treatment of water and waste water. It is used in the manufacture of glass, refractory, sand lime bricks and paints. It is used as lime mortar for masonry work of buildings. It is used for plastering and white washing of buildings. It is used as lime concrete to make water proof structures.

Properties of Lime:

Properties of Lime It has good workability. It stiffens quickly. It has low shrinkage. It has good resistant to moisture. Lime possesses good plasticity.


Cement Requirements of cement:- Cement should not possess of alumina which may reduce strength. Cement should not contain alumina in excess as it weakens the cement. A very small amount of Sulphur is added in cement to make sound cement. It should found cool when touch by hand. It should be in fine powder form while checking with first finger and thumb.

Types of Cement:

Types of Cement Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Rapid hardening Portland cement Quick setting cement Pozzuolana Portland cement Low heat cement Blast furnace cement White cement Sulfate resisting cement Colored cement

Uses of Cement:

Uses of Cement It is used in making joints for drains ,pipes. It is used to prepare RCC structures of building by using reinforcement with cement concrete. it is used in construction of buildings, bridges, tanks, domes, flyovers, dockyard etc. It is used to prepare cement mortar for building construction works like masonry, plaster, painting, flooring etc. It is used to prepare cement concrete for various construction works.

Properties of Cement:

Properties of Cement Physical properties of cement Mechanical properties of cement Chemical composition Fineness Soundness Setting of cement

Timber :

Timber Requirements of timber It should be dense. It should have uniform texture. It should have dark uniform color. It should be workable, good machinability. The medullary rays should be compact.

Types of Timber:

Types of Timber Natural timber Babul Oak Pine Mango Sal Teak Neem Palms Chirr. Industrial timber Veneers Plywood Fiberboards Impreg timber Compreg timber.

Uses of Timber:

Uses of Timber Railway sleepers, bridges, pipes. Furniture, decorative pieces, doors. Packing material, piles, cart wheels. Poles, pen, rafter. Roofs, partition walls, boats etc.

Properties of Timber:

Properties of Timber It has low heat conductivity. It has small bulk density. It is relatively high strength. It is susceptible to decay. It is susceptible to flame.


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