Social media use & disasters, 9-2013

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Nonprofit & Public Sector Participation in Self-organizing Information Networks: Twitter Hashtag and Trending Topic Use during Disasters:

Nonprofit & Public Sector Participation in Self-organizing Information Networks : Twitter Hashtag and Trending Topic Use during Disasters Clayton Wukich & Alan Steinberg Sam Houston State University Prepared for the Southeastern Conference for Public Administration ( SECoPA ) Charlotte , North Carolina * September 25-28, 2013

Policy Problem:

Policy Problem 2 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

Social Media:

Social M edia “Internet-based applications that enable people to communicate and share resources and information” (Lindsay 2011: 1) Examples: Blogs , discussion forums, chat rooms, wikis, YouTube Channels, LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter During disasters , social media provide sources of information for multiple actors Response agencies can… Monitor platforms for situational awareness Disseminate public information Directly interact/communicate with individuals 3 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

Research Questions:

Research Questions What types of Twitter information networks are formed during disasters? What roles do nonprofit and government agencies play in the formation and maintenance of these networks ? 4 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

Hypotheses:

Hypotheses H1: Government and nonprofit actors will play an important but limited role within these communication networks H2: Media actors will still be paramount in distributing information H3: Network actors will not be limited to local jurisdictions 5 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

Twitter and Self-Organization:

Twitter and Self-Organization Hashtags Ad-hoc groupings of messages # secopa Accessible platform through which multiple actors, who might have no previous connection, can share and respond to information Trending topics Identify ‘trending,’ popular hashtags Promote/amplify hashtag s 6 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

Social Media and Self-Organization:

Social Media and Self-Organization 7 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

Cases:

Cases 8 Boston Marathon Bombing Terrorism 4-15-2013 Photo: theguardian.com # bostonstrong Peoria, IL Flooding Natural Disaster 4-16-2013 (onset) Photo: wunderground.com # peoria

Cases (cont.):

Cases (cont.) 9 West, Texas Fertilizer Plant Explosion Technical Disaster 4-17-2013 Photo: abcnews.go.com # westexplosion Moore, Oklahoma Tornado Natural Disaster 5-20-2013 Photo: abcnews.go.com # prayforok

Data Collection & Analysis:

Data Collection & Analysis NodeXL used to… Import network data All users who employed specific hashtag Disaster onset plus 7 days Facilitate content analysis Assigned attributes (e.g., entity type & location) manually Created cross tabulations via SPSS Calculate network statistics (e.g., in-degree centrality) UCINET used to… Generate network diagrams 10 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

PowerPoint Presentation:

11 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion Celebrity-centered # bostonstrong Citizen-centered, Location-based # peoria Media-centered # westexplosion Citizen-centered, Faith-based # prayforok

Findings – # Networks:

Findings – # Networks Limited levels of involvement Government agencies failed to use #s to penetrate otherwise disparate groups of constituents This lack of interaction represents missed opportunities for self-organization N onprofits contributions = small, but substantive American Red Cross Salvation Army Participants are not limited to local areas but rather span jurisdictions 12 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

PowerPoint Presentation:

Government Nonprofit Commercial Private Citizens Media Hashtag Information Network Connections & Structural Holes

Findings – Outside # Networks:

Findings – Outside # Networks Several agencies tweeting, just not in the identified # streams In smaller municipalities, nonprofits and government agencies were less likely to have twitter accounts than in Boston When it comes to #s , use seems rather sporadic Many national level organizations use #s, but they did not to make much use of the ones identified here 14 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

Impact of Response Agencies:

Impact of Response Agencies 15 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

Questions:

Questions Thank you very much 16 Intro Theory Design Findings Conclusion

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