Naming Chemical Compounds

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How to name chemical compounds from their formulas

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Naming Chemical Compounds:

Naming Chemical Compounds The student knows how atoms form ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds. The student is expected to: (A) name ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases, using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature rules;

What's in a Name (how about getting it wrong?):

What's in a Name (how about getting it wrong?) The accident started with a typing error in a recipe by a laboratory worker. The following materials were to be used in the processing of the desired hydrocarbon resin: . dicyclopentadiene (20,000 liters) - tank 631 . resin oil 1 (20,000 liters) - tank 632 . resin oil 2 ( 1,300 liters) - tank 630 Instead of tank 632 he typed tank 634. Tank 632 stored resin feed classic (UN-1268), normally used in the batch process.Tank 634 also stored DCDP (dicyclopentadiene). The DCPD material in tank 631 and tank 634 had been delivered by several suppliers. The material safety data sheet (MSDS) of DCDP, made by one of the suppliers did not contain a warning of the reactivity of DCDP . The operator , who had to check if the tank content was similar to the recipe, filled the reactor with the wrong chemical.

What's in a Name (how about getting it wrong?):

What's in a Name (how about getting it wrong?) A heavy explosion occurred, which caused the death of 3 firemen of the works fire brigade and injured 11 workers, including 4 firemen of the works fire brigade. The explosion was followed by a very serious fire. The total loss was estimated to be 44 million NL guilders. Reactor fragments were found at a distance of 1 km. Peopledaily.com

Binary Compounds:

Binary Compounds What is a binary compound? One with only two elements Examples: NaCl, CS 2 , H 2 O Distinguish between molecular & ionic Ionic compounds are those made between a metal and nonmetal, also called salts or oxides: example KBr Molecular compounds are made with covalent bonds between nonmetallic elements Example CO, HBr, CH 4

Binary: Ionic compound names:

Binary: Ionic compound names There are two words in the name The first word is the name of the metal, unchanged The second is the root of the nonmetal, with -ide suffix There are no numeric prefixes However, if the metal is a transition metal with more than one valence, the valence is given after the word in Roman numerals, like (III)

Binary: practice ionic compounds:

Binary: practice ionic compounds Name the following ionic compounds NaI SrO Al 2 S 3 MnCl 2 KF Fe 2 O 3 PbO 2

Binary: practice ionic compounds:

Binary: practice ionic compounds Name the following ionic compounds NaI sodium iodide SrO strontium oxide Al 2 S 3 aluminum sulfide MnCl 2 manganese (II) chloride KF potassium fluoride Fe 2 O 3 iron (III) oxide PbO 2 lead (IV) oxide

Binary: molecular compound names:

Binary: molecular compound names There are two words in the name The first is the first element in the formula, with the prefix corresponding to the subscript Exception: no mono The second is the second element in the formula, with the prefix corresponding to the subscript (no exceptions)

Binary: molecular prefixes:

Binary: molecular prefixes 1 mono 2 di 3 tri 4 tetra 5 penta 6 hexa. . . 10 deca

Binary: molecular practice:

Binary: molecular practice Name the following compounds H 2 S N 2 O 5 NO PH 3 OF 2 HBr This is usually called simply hydrogen bromide All the hydrogen halides follow the same

Binary: molecular practice:

Binary: molecular practice Name the following compounds H 2 S dihydrogen sulfide N 2 O 5 dinitrogen pentoxide NO nitrogen monoxide PH 3 phosphorous trihydride OF 2 oxygen difluoride HBr hydrogen monobromide This is usually called simply hydrogen bromide All the hydrogen halides follow the same

Salts with polyatomic ions:

Salts with polyatomic ions Some salts have more than 2 elements Consider NaNO3 Many students, even after this instruction, call it sodium nitrogen trioxide That's not its name—any name like that is going to be wrong Save your ink Use your STAAR guide to polyatomic ions

All Polyatomic ions are in Ionic Salts:

All Polyatomic ions are in Ionic Salts Separate the formula into cation and anion Name the cation first with no changes Except Roman numerals for transition metals with multiple valences e.g. Copper (I) nitrate for CuNO 3 Then add the anion name with no changes Example: Na 2 SO 4 Sodium sulfate

Critical ions to memorize:

Critical ions to memorize Ammonium NH 4 + Acetate CH 3 COO - Carbonate CO 3 2- Cyanide CN - Hydrogen carbonate HCO 3 - Hydroxide OH - (makes base, not salt) Nitrate NO 3 - Phosphate PO 4 3- Sulfate SO 4 2-

Naming Salts with Polyions:

Naming Salts with Polyions Treat the polyatomic ion just like any other ion Put it into the name just as it is given in the table No prefixes Example K 2 SO 4 Potassium sulfate NH 4 NO 3 Ammonium nitrate Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 Calcium hydrogen carbonate

Hydrogen compounds:

Hydrogen compounds If the formula starts with H, it's probably an acid You are tempted to name it: “Hydrogen anionname” Don't do it For now, just memorize the critical ones HCl hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid HNO 4 nitric acid HCH 3 COO acetic acid Aceticacidshop.com

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