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Introduction : Introduction In our introductory unit to Human Geography, we described culture as a combination of 3 factors: Values Material artifacts Political institutions Geographers search for where in the world these phenomena exist and why distributions occur We will look at the material artifacts of culture – the visible objects that a group possess and leaves behind for the future Links to Other Units : Links to Other Units Three important components of a group’s beliefs and values Language Religion Ethnicity Political institutions maintain values and protect cultural artifacts Culture logically follows from a discussion of migration Two location have similar cultural beliefs, objects, and institutions because people bring along their culture when they migrate Differences emerge when two groups have limited interactions Culture, Habit, or Custom? : Culture, Habit, or Custom? Culture is not habit or custom Habit – repetitive act that a particular individual performs Act has not been adopted by most of the society’s population Custom – repetitive act of a group, performed to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group Habit that has been widely adopted by a group of people A collection of social customs produces a group’s material culture May be used to denote a specific element of material culture Culture – a group’s entire collection of customs Material Culture : Material Culture We will examine 2 facets of material culture Survival activities of daily life – food, clothing, and shelter Leisure activities – arts and recreation 2 categories that differ according to scale Folk Culture Traditional practiced primarily by small, homogeneous groups living isolated rural areas and may include a custom (sarong or sari) Popular (Pop) Culture Large heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics The scale of territory covered by a folk culture is typically much smaller that that covered by a popular culture Where is Culture Located in Space? : Where is Culture Located in Space? 2 aspects of where culture is located in space: Each cultural activity has a distinctive spatial distribution Geographers study a particular social custom’s origin, its diffusion, and its integration with other social characteristics Relation between material culture and the physical environment Each cultural group takes particular elements from the environment into its culture and in turn constructs landscapes (built environments) that modify nature in distinctive ways Distributions of Pop and Folk Culture : Distributions of Pop and Folk Culture Why a difference? Discrepancies in levels of interaction A group develops distinctive customs from experiencing local social and physical conditions in a place that is isolated from other groups Even groups living in proximity may generate a variety of folk customs in a limited geographic area, because of limited communication Landscapes dominated by a collection of folk cultures changes very little over time In contrast, pop culture is based on rapid simultaneous global connections through communication systems, transportation networks, and other modern technology Rapid diffusion facilitates frequent changes in popular customs Folk culture is more likely to vary from place to place at a given time, and pop culture is more likely to vary from time to time at a given place Globalization and Culture : Globalization and Culture Pop culture is becoming more dominant, threatening the survival of unique folk culture Folk customs - along with language, religion, and ethnicity – provide a unique identity to each group of people who occupy a specific region of Earth’s surface The disappearance of local folk custom reduces local diversity in the world and the intellectual stimulation that arises of differences in backgrounds Dominance of pop culture can also threaten the quality of the environment Folk culture derived from local natural elements may be more sensitive to the protection and enhancement of the environment Pop culture is less likely to reflect the diversity of local physical conditions and is more likely to modify the environment in accordance with global values Origins of Folk and Popular Cultures : Origins of Folk and Popular Cultures A social custom originates at a hearth – center of innovation Folk customs Often have anonymous hearths, originating from anonymous sources, at unknown dates, through unidentified originators May also have multiple hearths, originating independently in isolated locations Popular Customs Most often a product of the economically MDCs – especially North America, Western Europe, and Japan Arise from a combination of advances in industrial technology and increased leisure time Industrial technology permits the uniform reproduction of objects in large quantities Many of these objects help people enjoy leisure time – which may increase as a result of the widespread change in the labor force from predominantly agricultural work to predominantly service and manufacturing jobs Music exemplifies the differences in the origin of folk and popular culture Origin of Folk Music : Origin of Folk Music Songs are usually composed anonymously and transmitted orally May be modified from one generation to the next as conditions change, but the content is most often derived from events in daily life that are familiar to the majority of people Tell a story of convey information about daily activities such as farming, life-cycle events, or mysterious events such as storms and earthquakes Origin of Popular Music : Origin of Popular Music Written y specific individuals for the purpose of being sold to a large number of people Displays a high degree of technical skill and is frequently capable of begin performed only in a studio with electronic equipment Originated around 1900: UK – music hall US – vaudeville Music industry developed in New York - in a district that became known as Tin Pan Alley (now called Avenue of the Americas) Disappeared after WW II as recorded music became more important than printed songsheets Diffusion of Popular Music : Diffusion of Popular Music Worldwide diffusion began during WW II, when the Armed Forces Radio Network broadcast music to American soldiers and citizens of countries where American forces were stationed or fighting English became and is still the international language of pop music – even though many around the world cannot understand the lyrics Hip hop is a more recent form of popular music that also originated in New York in the late 1970’s in the South Bronx – a neighborhood predominantly inhabited by low-income African Americans and Puerto Rican people Other areas of New York adopted and adapted this style of music with their own local twist “Thug” rap in Queens and clever lines in Brooklyn 1980’s – spread to Oakland and Atlanta – and then to other large cities in the South, Midwest and the West Demonstrates the interplay between globalization and local diversity – artists express a sense of a specific place across boundless space (global marketplace) Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures : Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures Popular Culture Typically follows the process of hierarchical diffusion from hearths or nodes of innovation US – Hollywood (film), Madison Avenue, NYC (advertising) Diffuses rapidly and extensively through the use of modern communications and transportations Folk Culture Transmitted form one location to another more slowly and on a smaller scale, primarily through migration rather than electronic communication – relocation diffusion The Amish: Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture : The Amish: Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture Amish Folk Culture remains visible on the landscape in at least 17 states (80,000 – 0.03 % of US population) Distinctive clothing, farming, religious practices, and other customs No electrical or mechanical power – travel by horse and buggy and use hand tools for farming Distribution across the US is explained by examining the diffusion of their culture through migration 1600s – Swiss Mennonite bishop, Jakob Ammann, gathered a group of followers (Amish) – originated in Bern, Switzerland, Alsace in northeastern France, and the Palatinate region of southwestern Germany Migrated to other portions of northwestern Europe in the 1700s – primarily for religious freedom Did not develop distinctive language, clothing, or farming practices and gradually merged with various Mennonite church groups The Amish: Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture : The Amish: Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture Migrated to North American in 2 waves (cheap land): Bern and the Palatinate – settled in Pennsylvania in the early 1700s Alsace – settled in Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, and Ontario in the early 1800s From these core areas, groups migrated to other locations where inexpensive land was also available Lived in isolated rural and frontier areas and maintained their traditional customs even as other European immigrants to the US adopted new ones Continues to diffuse slowly through interregional migration within the US Today, are migrating to escape gawking tourists and gain more farmland for their families Sports: Hierarchical Diffusion of Popular Culture : Sports: Hierarchical Diffusion of Popular Culture Many sports originate as isolated folk customs and are diffused through migration The contemporary diffusion of organized sports displays the characteristics of popular culture Folk Culture Origin of Soccer : Folk Culture Origin of Soccer Earliest documented contest took place in England in the 11th century Football historians believe that after the Danish invasion of England between 1018 and 1042, workers excavating a building site and encountered a Danish soldiers head and began to play “Kick the Dane’s Head”, young boys began to copy to game and used and inflated cow bladder Early games resembled mob scenes – winning team (one village) was the one who kicked the ball into the center of the opposing team’s village 12th century – confined to smaller vacant areas and rules became standardized Banned by King Henry II in the 12th century because the game disrupted village life Legalized by King James I 1603 At this point, football (soccer) was an English folk custom rather than a global popular custom Globalization of Soccer : Globalization of Soccer Transformation from English folk custom to global popular culture began in the 1800s Football and other recreational clubs were organized in England Typically founded by churches to provide factory workers with organized recreation during leisure hours Sport became a subject taught in school Increased leisure time permitted people not only to view sporting events and participate in them Higher incomes = more people willing to pay to see games To meet public demand, clubs began to hire professional players British clubs formed an association in 1863 to standardize the rules and to organize professional leagues The word soccer originated after 1863, when supporters of the game formed the Football Association – association was shortened to assoc. which was eventually twisted into soccer Rugby developed in 1823, when a player at Rugby School picked up the ball and ran with it Globalization of Soccer : Globalization of Soccer Late 1800s – the British exported association football around the world, first to continental Europe and then to other countries First played in continental Europe in the late 1870s by Dutch students who had been in Britain Game was diffused to other countries through contact with English players Diffused throughout their worldwide empire 20th century – further diffused by new communication systems, especially radio and television Also diffused to the US, but never gained the same following as it did in Western Europe and Latin America 1869 – first US college soccer game (Princeton and Rutgers) Harvard argued for the adoption of Rugby rules Eventually, rugby rules were altered and became American football Sports in Popular Culture : Sports in Popular Culture Each country has its own preferred sports Cricket is popular in Britain and former British colonies Ice hockey prevails in colder climates – Canada, Northern Europe, and Russia Most popular sports in China are martial arts (wushu) and include archery, fencing, wrestling, and boxing Baseball, once confined to North America, became popular in Japan after it was introduced by American soldiers who occupied the country after WW II Lacrosse has fostered cultural identity among the Iroquois Confederation of Six Nations (Cayugas, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Senecas, and Tuscaroras) who lived in the northeastern US and southeastern Canada – European colonists picked up the game and it further diffused to other European American communities – lacrosse is derived from the French – la crosse (a bishop’s crosier or staff – which has a similar shape to a lacrosse stick) Sport in Popular Culture : Sport in Popular Culture Despite the diversity in distribution of sports across Earth’s surface and the anonymous origin of some games, organized spectator sports today are part of popular culture The common element in professional sports is the willingness of people throughout the world to pay for the privilege of viewing, in person or on TV, events played by professional athletes You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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