The Ethnic Relations in Malaysia : The Ethnic Relations in Malaysia UNITY AND NATIONAL INTEGRATION : UNITY AND NATIONAL INTEGRATION Concepts of Unity and Integration: Concepts of Unity and Integration National Unity: uniting of various groups that have different social and cultural backgrounds, into one physical entity.
Integration: a process of uniting groups with different backgrounds into one entity bound by common norms, values and interests. Concepts of Unity and Integration: Concepts of Unity and Integration
National Unity refers to the uniting of various groups that have different social and cultural backgrounds, into one physical entity. National Unity: National Unity The unity that exists in the country is founded upon power sharing, a democratic government, sound economy distribution and cultural tolerance. Example: Example Uniting Sabah, Sarawak and the Peninsula into one country or federation, for example, is the effort at achieving national unity. National Integration: National Integration National Integration as a form of social nurturing is a process of uniting various groups in the society through a common identity by putting aside major differences but at the same time not ignoring the original identity of each group. Integration: Integration The concept of integration is wider than that.
It is a process of uniting groups with different backgrounds into one entity bound by common norms, values and interests. Integration: Integration Each group or community has its own norms and values.
It is not easy to set common norms and values for the country.
What more among communities that already different in terms of language, religion, economic function, and descent Integration: Integration Therefore, National integration is more an abstract process, a coming or binding together that is genuine and time-consuming.
Concept of Plural Society: Concept of Plural Society According J.S Furnival, the plural society is characterized by ethnic groups who live under one political unit ( a country) but are not integrated. Concept of Plural Society: Concept of Plural Society Every group has its own language, culture, religion, values, thinking and way of life. Social Characteristics of Plural Society: Social Characteristics of Plural Society Diversity of Culture
The physical separation
Identification of ethnic by employment
Lack of social contact
The existence of a dominant group politically
J.S Furnival 1948
History of Ethnic Relations: History of Ethnic Relations a) Stage of co-existence: in the era of the British colonists
the races of different backgrounds have contact but rarely communicate.
History of Ethnic Relations: History of Ethnic Relations b) Stage of frequent external contact: during the British rule up to the time of independence
gradually frequent contact among the communities occurred, but it was still unable to establish an understanding among them.
History of Ethnic Relations: History of Ethnic Relations c) Stage of compromise: at the time of the early independence era until now
after the communities concerned became conscious of their common interest, they felt the need to compromise for the sake of looking after their common interest.
History of Ethnic Relations: History of Ethnic Relations d) Stage of unity: at the present stage
when the communities in the society compromise and cooperate as much as possible, there is the tendency for them to live united – but it still external.
History of Ethnic Relations: History of Ethnic Relations e) Stage of integration: an ongoing process
Cooperation among races can gradually create a sense of belonging and strong ties among them – based on a sense of responsibility.
Analysis : Analysis After independence the country was in the stage of compromise.
This is reflected in the component parties of the Alliance and later the Barisan Nasional. Analysis: Analysis Nevertheless, with time, compromise existed among a large section of the people.
Even the stage of unity is about to be achieved and then gradually integration will exist in the country. Analysis: Analysis Where unity founded upon national identity in the country is concerned, conflict still seems to exist. Choices of national identity: Choices of national identity One of the believes that to create a united society the groups concerned, need to be assimilated so that eventually a new Malaysian identity is formed-with similarities among them. Choices of national identity: Choices of national identity They probably have the same language, values and way of life.
This can achieved through a process of socialization such as the same system of education, using the same language, inter- marriage and practicing the national ideology Choices of national identity: Choices of national identity What should be nurtured is national consciousness and not ethnic consciousness, because if ethnic consciousness is still strong then national consciousness will remain weak. Quote: Quote “Unity should be nurtured and not forced on people. It should be cultivated and instilled in every individual through culture and good values. Its through the liking, the understanding of each other, through tolerance, that we can build unity rather than thorough law and forcing people into it.”
Datuk Seri Mohd Shafie Minister of Unity, Culture, Arts and Heritage The Theory of Racial Relations: The Theory of Racial Relations The Theory of Racial Relations: The Theory of Racial Relations Low integration High integration Segregation: Segregation This is a relation that has the characteristics of a split among the ethnic groups in a country.
Splits occurs in residence, school system, transportation
For example: The Apartheid Policy that was practiced before in South Africa
Accommodation: Accommodation This is a process where the ethnic groups are aware of each other’s norms and values but they continue to safeguard their own living culture.
However, they live in harmony and respect one and another. Accommodation: Accommodation At the level of the central government each ethnic group sends a representative who represents his own group. Accommodation: Accommodation For example: Ethnic group of Germans, French and Italians living in Switzerland who accommodate one another and live in peaceful co-existence Acculturation (Cultural Assimilation) : Acculturation (Cultural Assimilation) This is a process when people from a minority group accept the norms, values and patterns of behavior (culture) of the majority group without changing their original cultural elements. Assimilation (Structural Assimilation) : Assimilation (Structural Assimilation) This concept of assimilation is about the entry into a dominant society through friendship and close connection.
Assimilation (Structural Assimilation): Assimilation (Structural Assimilation) The degree of assimilation of the minority groups varies, that is, based on physical differences (like the colour of the skin and the degree to which the cultural features differ from that of the dominant group).
Assimilation Problem : Assimilation Problem Amalgamation : Amalgamation This is a process that happens when culture or races mixes to from a type of new culture and races. For example: Inter-marriage between ethnic groups or races.
“Nothing wrong being racial but we should not be a racist.” Meaning…: Meaning… We each have our own ethnic background,
It’s a norm
Because we cant abolish our race.
We have to stick with our traditions. Racist: Racist
You are a racist when you think you are greater than other race, or if you look down on another race. In Conclude: In Conclude All of the five process above portray how minority groups become part of the main stream of society.
The presence of accommodation in a society reflects that a society is in a situation of merging together.
In Conclude: In Conclude However a situation of real integration can only be achieved starting with acculturation, assimilation and finally amalgamation.
Question: Question 1.The question now is at which stage of the process is the Malaysian society.
2. Is the Malaysian society still at the accommodation stage or at a higher state than that.