Human Behavior Theories

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Human Behavior Theories:

Human Behavior Theories DR. Evelyn Evangelio Professor Wilfredo A. Pabuaya Reporter MAED - 517

COGNITIVE Evaluation Theory:

COGNITIVE Evaluation Theory Is a theory in Psychology that is designed to explain the effects of external consequences on internal motivation. Specifically, CET is a sub-theory of Self-Determination theory that focus on and autonomy while examining how intrinsic motivation is affected by external forces.

CET uses three propositions to explain how consequences affect internal motivation::

CET uses three propositions to explain how consequences affect internal motivation: External events set will impact intrinsic motivation for optimally challenging activities to the extent that they influence perceived competence, within the context of Self-Determination theory . Events that promote greater perceived competence will enhance intrinsic motivation, whereas those that diminish perceived competence will decrease intrinsic motivation.

Events relevant to the initiation and regulation of behavior have three potential aspects, each with a significant function. 1. The informational aspect facilitates an internal perceived locus of causality and perceived competence, thus positively influencing intrinsic motivation. 2. The controlling aspect facilitates an external perceived locus of causality (a person’s perception of the cause of success or failure), thus negatively influencing intrinsic motivation and increasing extrinsic compliance or defiance. 3. The amotivating aspect facilitates perceived incompetence, and undermining intrinsic motivation while promoting disinterest in the task.:

Events relevant to the initiation and regulation of behavior have three potential aspects, each with a significant function. 1. The informational aspect facilitates an internal perceived locus of causality and perceived competence, thus positively influencing intrinsic motivation. 2. The controlling aspect facilitates an external perceived locus of causality (a person’s perception of the cause of success or failure), thus negatively influencing intrinsic motivation and increasing extrinsic compliance or defiance. 3. The amotivating aspect facilitates perceived incompetence, and undermining intrinsic motivation while promoting disinterest in the task.

3. Personal events differ in their qualitative aspects and, like external events, can have differing functional significances. Events deemed internally informational facilitate self-determined functioning and maintain or enhance intrinsic motivation. Events deemed internally controlling events are experienced as pressure toward specific outcomes and undermine intrinsic motivation. Internally amotivating events make incompetence salient and also undermine intrinsic motivation. :

3. Personal events differ in their qualitative aspects and, like external events, can have differing functional significances. Events deemed internally informational facilitate self-determined functioning and maintain or enhance intrinsic motivation. Events deemed internally controlling events are experienced as pressure toward specific outcomes and undermine intrinsic motivation. Internally amotivating events make incompetence salient and also undermine intrinsic motivation.

Evidence for Cognitive Evaluation Theory:

Evidence for Cognitive Evaluation Theory Vallerand and Reid (1984) [3] found that college students' perceived competence and intrinsic motivation were increased by positive feedback and decreased by negative feedback. Further, a path analysis suggested that the effects of feedback on the students' intrinsic motivation were mediated by perceived competence.

Kruglanski, Alon, and Lewis (1972)[4] found that tangible rewards decreased fifth grade children's intrinsic motivation for playing various games. The authors also attempted to measure whether or not children who received the rewards had an external locus of causality. They asked rewarded and non-rewarded children1 week after the treatment session for their reasons for playing the games. Of the 36 rewarded children, only 2 mentioned the reward as their reason. :

Kruglanski , Alon , and Lewis (1972) [4] found that tangible rewards decreased fifth grade children's intrinsic motivation for playing various games. The authors also attempted to measure whether or not children who received the rewards had an external locus of causality. They asked rewarded and non-rewarded children1 week after the treatment session for their reasons for playing the games. Of the 36 rewarded children, only 2 mentioned the reward as their reason.

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Goudas, Biddle, Fox, and Underwood (1995) [5] tested this hypothesis with the use of different teaching styles in a physical education class. The students reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation when their track-and-field instructor offered them a number of choices throughout the lesson rather than controlling every class decision.

Evidence against Cognitive Evaluation Theory:

Evidence against Cognitive Evaluation Theory Many studies have found changes in intrinsic motivation without changes in perceived locus of causality or competence ( Boal & Cummings, 1981; [6] Harackiewicz , Manderlink , and Sansone , 1984). [7] Phillips and Lord (1980) [8] found changes in perceived competence following the receipt of rewards, but no changes in intrinsic motivation. Salancik (1975) [9] found that college students rewarded with money reported internal attributions of control.

Alternative for Undermining of Intrinsic Motivation:

Alternative for Undermining of Intrinsic Motivation That intrinsic motivation may decrease over time due to repetitive actions. This is to say that the motivation was not undermined by an external force but was decreasing because of doing the same action over and over. If the controlling actions (the reward) are negative it could negatively influence intrinsic motivation. Rewards can do this in several ways, including serving as a proxy for a punishment by withholding a reward as the reward stands as a means of coercion to complete an otherwise undesirable task. Culturally, intrinsically motivated acts that have no extrinsic reward are praised by society whereas actions that receive a tangible reward are not praised as highly, which would indicate that for actions that have a tangible reward they receive less praise and this undermines their intrinsic motivation to complete the task.

Implications of Cognitive Evaluation Theory:

Implications of Cognitive Evaluation Theory The primary implication for CET is that the consequences of a reward will be a decreased level of intrinsic motivation and satisfaction because the reward is perceived to negatively impact the autonomy and competence of the individual. Tangible rewards under most conditions will negatively impact the motivation and interest of employees. However, while expected tangible rewards negatively impact motivation and satisfaction, unexpected tangible rewards do not have a negative impact because they are unexpected and thus do not influence the motivation to engage in the act. Similarly, rewards that are not dependent upon the task and are given freely are also not detrimental to motivation and satisfaction ( Deci , Koestner , & Ryan, 1999). [13]

Goal setting Theory:

Goal setting Theory involves establishing specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-targeted ( S.M.A.R.T. ) goals . Work on the theory of goal-setting suggests that an effective tool for making progress is to ensure that participants in a group with a common goal are clearly aware of what is expected from them. On a personal level, setting goals helps people work towards their own objectives. Goal setting features as a major component of personal development literature. The word goal is also one of the most recognizable words in management for motivational endeavors.

History:

History Edwin A. Locke began to examine goal setting in the mid-1960s and continued researching goal setting for thirty years. Locke derived the idea for goal-setting from Aristotle ’s form of Final casuality . Aristotle speculated that purpose can cause action; thus, Locke began researching the impact goals have on individual activity of its time performance. Goal setting theory was developed and refined by Edwin A. Locke in the 1960s. His first article on goal setting theory was “Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives” which was published in 1968. This article laid the foundation for goal setting theory and established the positive relationship between clearly identified goals and performance.

Concept:

Concept Goals that are deemed difficult to achieve and specific tend to increase performance more than goals that are not. [3] A goal can become more specific through quantification or enumeration (should be measurable), such as by demanding "...increase productivity by 50%," or by defining certain tasks that must be completed.

Setting goals affects outcomes in four ways:[4] :

Setting goals affects outcomes in four ways: [4] Choice: goals narrow attention and direct efforts to goal-relevant activities, and away from perceived undesirable and goal-irrelevant actions. Effort: goals can lead to more effort; for example, if one typically produces 4 widgets an hour, and has the goal of producing 6, one may work more intensely towards the goal than one would otherwise. Persistence: someone becomes more likely to work through setbacks if pursuing a goal. Cognition: goals can lead individuals to develop and change their behavior.

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