Servant Leadership

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“Don’t believe everything you think. Our minds are thought-creating machines. Most of these thoughts are fear-based. Our authentic self has the power to pick the thoughts that best serve us and those we lead.” ― Henna Inam, Wired for Authenticity: Seven Practices to Inspire, Adapt, & Lead

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Servant – Leadership An Introduction to the Power of Leadership Through Service Seta A. Wicaksana - Founder and CEO www.humanikaconsulting.com

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Topics • Introduction • Define Leadership and servant leadership • Servant-leadership paradox • Translating the concepts into real- world practice • Characteristics • In Practice: Translating the concepts into real-world practice • Impact of Servant Leadership • References An overview of the topics we will cover

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Introduction: WHY SERVANT LEADERSHIP

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Introduction: Why Servant Leadership • Liden et al. 2014 note that servant leader’s focus on providing support to their followers - support that is both tangible and emotional - and consequently this allows followers to achieve their maximum potential. • Servant leadership has been linked to higher employee trust and fairness perceptions as well as employee loyalty Van Dierendonck 2011.

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• This person oriented attitude makes way for safe and strong relationships within the organisation and it leads to a commitment by the servant leader to the growth of individual followers and even the personal growth of followers and a responsibility to the community and organisation Reinke 2004. • While there are positive links found between servant leadership and employee outcomes see Parris Peachey 2013 Van Dierendonck 2011. Introduction: Why Servant Leadership

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• Barbuto and Wheeler 2006 found servant leadership was positively related to extra effort effectiveness and satisfaction. • it is suggested that the influence of servant leadership on more core employee outcomes like job satisfaction and engagement might work through a mediated mechanism. Empirical evidence has shown that a leaders’ servant leadership style is positively related to firm performance employee performance employee creativity and customer service behaviours and negatively to turnover intentions Liden et al. 2014 Introduction: Why Servant Leadership

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• In a multi-level study Liden et al. 2008 found servant leadership was positively related to organisational commitment in-role performance and citizenship behaviours towards the community. In their multi-level modelling these effects were over and above those of transformational leadership and leader- member exchange highlighting the unique contribution servant leadership made to these outcomes. • Ehrhart 2004 found positive links between servant leadership and two types of organisational citizenship behaviours – including both self-rated by employees and their supervisors. Introduction: Why Servant Leadership

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• Chen et al. 2013 argued that servant leadership promotes employees’ spiritual development wellbeing and work outcomes such that they start to become more engaged open-minded patient and considerate in the workplace. • Panaccio et al. 2015 found servant leadership was positively related to psychological contract fulfilment interpersonal helping initiative and innovative behaviours. Introduction: Why Servant Leadership

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Define Leadership and Servant Leadership

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Leadership • What is the root cause of most challenges in companies today A. Lack of technology B. Lack of available cash C. Lack of leadership D. Lack of efficient processes or strategies • Are effective leaders born or made 12

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Leadership Styles • Heroic - unplanned crisis • Courageous – bold • Authentic - transparent • Laissez Faire – hands off • Autocratic – top down • Participative – empowerment • Situational – changes • Emergent – new leader • Transactional – by the rules 13 • Transformational – change agent • Strategic – competitive • Team – collaboration • Facilitative – consensus • Cross cultural – diversity/inclusion • Coaching – teach and train • Level 5 – good to great • Servant – others first

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Leadership is the process of influencing either directly or indirectly individuals groups and organizations toward accomplishing their goals. Based on a definition by Roach and Behling 1984 • Shared social influence process • Purposeful • Not restricted to a person in particular • Followers are part of leadership process • Can be either direct or indirect

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Influence To affect change in thinking action attitude Also Changes in policies structures culture and strategy. COMMON GOAL FOLLOWERS LEADER Leadership Defined

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Achieving Results Developing Relationships Dual Focus of Leadership

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Interactive Leadership Model Based on the work of Hollander 1978 and Hughes Ginnett Curphy 1993 Leader Teacher Advisor Colleague Followers Students Colleagues Situation Macro/Micro University Advising Leadership Space Outcomes • Results • Satisfaction

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The Difference Of Leadership’s Style And Servant Leadership • Leadership thus becomes the possibility to serve others and as such serving and leading become almost interchangeable. Furthermore the servant leader approach is governed by creating within the organisation opportunities to help followers grow Luthans Avolio 2003. Importantly a servant leader is genuinely concerned with serving followers Greenleaf 1977 Stone Russell Patterson 2004. • Servant leadership focuses on the humble and ethical use of power cultivating a genuine relationship between leaders and followers and creating a supportive and positive work environment Wong Davey 2007.

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• Recently leadership studies have moved away from a singular focus on the role of heroic leaders such as transformational leaders towards garnering an understanding of the importance of strong shared and relational interactions between leader and followers Avolio Walumbwa Weber 2009. • This interaction is to a large extent the rationale of servant leadership where the leaders’ role is to build relationships to ensure followers are able to be the best they can be Van Dierendonck 2011. • This person oriented attitude makes way for safe and strong relationships within the organisation and it leads to a commitment by the servant leader to the growth of individual followers and even the personal growth of followers and a responsibility to the community and organisation Reinke 2004. While there are positive links found between servant leadership and employee outcomes Parris Peachey 2013 Van Dierendonck 2011. The Difference Of Leadership’s Style And Servant Leadership

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• Most types of leadership concentrate on the well being of the organization while in servant leadership the focus is on followers who are considered to be the most important Kool Dierendonck 2012 as cited in Taleghani Mehr 2013. • The focus of the servant leader is on meeting the needs of the employees and not on fulfilling the leader’s needs. It is a leadership style that places great emphasis on the personal development and empowerment of followers Thakore 2013. The Difference Of Leadership’s Style And Servant Leadership

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Three approaches to gaining influence: • Pathos: Emotional Awakening emotions in others making an emotional appeal using vivid and emotional language. • Logos: Word Use of logic to support a request: facts statistics. • Ethos: Character The credibility of the person attempting to influence. It Goes Back to Aristotle

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What is Servant Leadership Servant leadership is a set of principles and practices that turn the traditional “power leadership” model upside down creating higher performing people and a more caring world. As servant leaders our purpose is to serve those who follow: to inspire and equip those we influence.

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Servant Leadership “Good leaders must first become good servants.” Robert Greenleaf 1904-1990 • Originated in the writings of Robert Greenleaf early 1970s • Paradoxical – both service and influence oriented seems counter-intuitive • Views service as an end not solely as a means to other organizational outcomes • Aligned with other leadership theories e.g. “authentic” “transformational” • Different conceptualizations e.g. trait vs. behavioural • Applicable across different organizational roles/types • Context is important • Can be learned and developed

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Robert. K Greenleaf Largely considered the father of modern Servant-Leadership Career: • 38 Years at ATT largely in management training and development • 25 Years consulting on Servant Leadership thereafter • Coined the term Servant-Leader in 1970’s • Founded Center for Applied Ethics now Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership Inspiration: • Hermann Hesse’s short novel Journey to the East in 1960’s • Account of a mythical journey by a group of people on a spiritual quest • True leadership stems first from a desire to serve Essays: • The Servant as Leader 1970 • The Institution as Servant 1972 • Trustees as Servants 1972

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Post –Greenleaf Following Greenleaf a wealth of Servant-Leadership experts emerged Larry Spears: •President / CEO of Greenleaf center for 25 years •Author of hundreds of publications on Servant-Leadership •Founded the Spears Center James Autry: • President of magazine group for Meredith Corporation • Author of 8 Books • Focus on implementation James C. Hunter: • 25 Years in Servant-Leadership • 2 of the most popular books on Servant-Leadership • Consulted many of the world’s most admired companies Others: Ken Blanchard Stephen Covey Peter M. Senge Jim Collins….

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“The servant-leader is servant first. It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. The best test is: do those served grow as persons do they while being served become healthier wiser freer more autonomous more likely themselves to become servants” -Robert Greenleaf Measuring Success “Servant-Leadership is a simple idea those who serve first and then choose to lead can make the biggest difference in an organization and in peoples’ lives.” -Don Frick Greenleaf Biographer

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Servant Leadership and Innovation

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Servant-leadership paradox

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Servant-leadership paradox “Servant” and “leader” usually thought of as opposites – Both logical and intuitive – The process of balancing the two concepts is not either/or but both/and

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Paradoxes Servant-Leadership itself a paradox requires a constant balance… Strong Be Open To Change Busy Listen Admit You Don’t Know Wise Serious Laugh Right Say “I’m Wrong” Compassionate Discipline Planned Be Spontaneous Great Be Without Pride Leading Serve Enough To

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Examples of Balance Great Enough to be Without Pride • Team gets the credit you get the blame Compassionate Enough to Discipline • Must not be soft – set high expectations and follow through Right Enough to Say “I’m Wrong” • Leaders make mistakes too admit you are human Wise Enough to Admit You Don’t Know • Find out quickly but do not mislead Busy Enough to Listen • Beware the busy manager – they do not lead Paradoxes are not easy to balance. Here are a few examples…

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Greatest Paradox Leading Enough to Serve Focus on the Organization Humble no ego or pride Emphasize the role of others in success Accept responsibility in failures Constantly seek opportunities for improvement Roll up your sleeves Stress what is best for the organization not the few 360° Support Listen to Stakeholders No job too big no job too small Participate listen and build consensus to lead not manage Far more… Just a few of the underlying paradoxes inherent in service and leadership…

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In Practice: Translating the concepts into real-world practice

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Servant Leadership in Practice… Your focus  A way of seeing  Putting on a special lens Whether we are leading or following another we do it with a desire to serve. Your intention  An awareness of others’ needs  A calling  A desire to be caring It becomes your nature how you approach any relationship.

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Servant Leadership in Pr actic e … The contribution you make each day  A commitment  One action at a time  One person at a time  A journey Your practice  A competency  Developed over time  Becomes part of who we are  Practiced throughout life

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Team Performance Job Description – Non Servant-Leader Approach • Objective: Command and control • Created once revised only during turnover • Written by hiring manager each time Job Description – Servant-Leader Approach • Objective: mutual understanding • Dynamic reviewed annually • Initial draft by employee Performance Standards – Servant-Leader Approach • To meet my performance objectives this quarter I must… • Employee initiates manager reviews • Servant-Leader must ensure staff does not take on too much Aligning corporate HR practices with Servant-Leadership…

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Patrick Lencioni Cultivating Positive Work Culture

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Task Relationship The efficiency and effectiveness of a task is directly related to the level of trust in relationships Framework for Building Healthy Teams Trust is the foundation of Relationships Relationship is the "core" of Community and Team Cultivating Positive Work Culture

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Bryk and Schneider “Trust in Schools ” 2002: Research focused on relationship between trust and academic achievement “As a social resource for school improvement relational trust facilitates the development of beliefs values organizational routines and individual behaviors that instrumentally affect students ’ engagement and learning. ” Relational Trust: •reduces the sense of anxiety of new and uncertain tasks •facilitates public problem solving within the organization •undergirds and promotes a professional learning community •promotes commitment to organizational beliefs values and mission Cultivating Positive Work Culture

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Malcolm Gladwell Tipping Point 2000: The power of context is an environmental argument. It says that behavior is a function of social context. Power of context says that what really matters is little things. They are more caught than taught “Most of us will be better people on a clean street or in a clean subway than in one littered with trash and graffiti. Most of us to use another example will pay attention to the plight of individual workers if those around us are doing so. Change the situation and you change the chance to change people ’s beliefs and behavior. ” “…You need to create a community around them where these belief could be practiced expressed and nurtured. ” Cultivating Positive Work Culture

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Reina and Reina “Trust and Betrayal in the Workplace ” 1999: Transactional trust or “Reciprocal ” trust got to give it to get it - reciprocal pronouns 3 Kinds of Trust: • Competence Trust mutual respect for knowledge skills ability and judgment. • Contractual Trust mutual boundaries standards expectations and roles • Communication Trust mutual honesty good intentions constructive feedback confidentiality Cultivating Positive Work Culture

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Tom Rath “Vital Friends ” 2006: The person we least like to be around • Fewer than 1 in 5 people consider their boss to be a close friend. • Employees who have a close friendship with their manager are more than 2.5 times as likely to be satisfied with their jobs. • If my supervisor or someone at work seems to care about me as a person:  They are more likely to stay with the organization  have more engaged customers  are more productive • Just 17 of employees report that their manager has made “an investment in past three months. Cultivating Positive Work Culture

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William Mercer ’ s study of “ Why employees don ’t work to full capacity ” 25 of workers said they were capable of doing 50 more work. On the average they estimated they could do 26 more. Why don ’t they • Not being involved in decision making • The lack of a reward for “good ” performance • No opportunity for advancement • Lack of supervision leader involvement • Inadequate training Cultivating and Appealing from Trust

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Organization Hierarchy Changing the perspective on the structure… Labor Management Commander CEO CIO Operations Development CFO Accounting Finance Traditional CxO CEO CxO “Primus Inter Pares” First Among Equals Flipped Pyramid Shareholders Management Staff Staff Management Shareholders

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In practice Chick-fil-A • Spiritually focused • Corporate Purpose: To glorify God by being a faithful steward of all that is entrusted to us. To have a positive influence on all who come in contact with Chick-fil-A. • Closed on Sundays • Truett Cathy’s acts of forgiveness Starbucks • Workshops • Activities • Employees join the Starbucks team because of their core purpose great people and customers

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Perhaps one of the best ways to define servant leadership is to read about what Colleen Barrett President of Southwest Airlines said about their leadership philosophy.

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“We do build our pyramid a bit different…at the top of our pyramid in terms of priority is our employees and delivering to them proactive customer service”. - Colleen Barrett

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CHARACTERISTICS of SERVANT LEADERSHIP

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Who are servant leaders • The servant-leader is a servant first • Servant leaders are hard working • Servant leadership is a conscious choice • Servant leaders aren’t just legally compliant they are ethically sound and morally aware • Servant leaders care for people not control people • Servant leaders build a community at work

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The characteristics of servant leaders • Authentic • Vulnerable • Accepting • Present • Useful Let’s investigate each one…

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Authentic • Be who you are • Honor what is good in people • Don’t tell people what they want to hear…tell them the truth • Communicate bad news…not just good news 60

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Vulnerable • Be honest with your feelings in the context of work • Be open about your feelings and concerns – Employee performance reviews – Your performance – Admit mistakes • Be courageous – “Courage Goes to Work” Bill Treasurer 61

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Accepting • Abandon notion of winners and losers • Don’t just say that mistakes are ok celebrate them • Trust on good faith without requiring others earn it first. • Don’t micromanage subordinates • Re-define success 62

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Be Present • Notice what you are thinking and feeling • Concentrate on the task at hand…even when chaos reigns • Give others your full attention 63

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Be Useful • Listen first • Perform your core responsibilities to a high level then you will have earned the right to be given more – The Theology of the Hammer Millard Fuller • Be a resource for others • Don’t do for people what they are capable of doing themselves 64

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10 Characteristics of a Servant Leader Spears 2002 • Listening - acknowledging the viewpoint of followers and validating these perspectives. • Empathy – “standing in the shoes” of another person and attempting to see the world from that person’s point of view. • Healing – in helping followers become whole servant leaders are themselves healed. • Awareness – understanding oneself and the impact one has on others. • Persuasion – creates change through gentle nonjudgmental argument. • Conceptualization – the ability to be a visionary for an organization. • Foresight – the ability to predict what is coming based on what is occurring in the present and what has happened in the past. • Stewardship – carefully managing the people and organization one has been given to lead. Holding the organization in trust for the greater good of society. • Commitment to the Growth of People – treating each follower as a unique person with intrinsic value beyond what he/she contributes to the organization. • Building Community – allowing followers to identify with something greater than themselves that they value.

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Characteristic Breakout Servant Leader Awareness Persuasion Conceptualization Foresight Listening Empathy Healing Stewardship Commitment to People Building Community Breaking out Spears’ characteristics into 3 dimensions… SERVANT-LEADER

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SERVE S…See the Future E…Engage and Develop People R…Reinvent Continuously V…Value Results and Relationships E…Embody the Values Source: “Leading at a Higher Level” Ken Blanchard 67

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Servant Leadership Behaviors Servant Leadership Stephen M.R. Covey Behaviors Integrated Serve First - Demonstrate respect Build Trust - Show loyalty - Extend trust Live Your Values - Clarify expectations Listen to Understand - Listen first Think About Your Thinking - Practice accountability - Keep commitments Bring Value: Your Strengths - Talk straight Increase Your Influence - Create transparency - Right wrongs Demonstrate Courage - Challenge non-useful beliefs - Confront reality - Deliver results Live Your Transformation - Recognize positive change in yourself and others - Get better

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SOURCE: Adapted from Liden R. C. Panaccio A. Hu J. Meuser J. D. 2014. Servant leadership: Antecedents consequences and contextual moderators. In D. V. Day Ed. The Oxford handbook of leadership and organizations. Oxford England: Oxford University Press and van Dierendonck D. 2011. Servant leadership: A review and syntheses. Journal of Management 374 1228–1261.

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Servant Leadership Development Leadership From Within • Leading yourself • Trusting yourself • Recognizing your calling • Self-discipline One-to-One • Giving and receiving trust • Having a positive impact on another person Team/Family • Building community • Belonging • Common purpose Organizational/Community Contributing to the whole: all stakeholders • Company • Customer • World Servant Leadership

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Your Journey Your Steps Leading Yourself Stewardship Where am I accountable by operating in service of others Influence Where am I able to get things done through others for mutual benefit Trust What specific behavior can I demonstrate to increase trust lower costs and increase speed

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Your Leadership Role Model In your work life who has most influenced you as leader In what ways did this person use his or her power In what ways did the person connect with you extend trust and demonstrate action from the heart as well as the head What did you learn from him or her

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Impact of Servant Leadership

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The Impact of Servant Leadership • Servant-leadership principles are being applied by a wide variety of people working for-profit non-profit churches universities health care organizations and foundations • Servant-leadership impacts the health and effectiveness of your organization and community • It builds trust between you and the employees • It results in loyalty to the leader and the organization 75

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What Servant Leadership Inspires - Dr. Henry Cloud Connection “People don’t care how much you know until they know how much you care.” “If you capture their hearts you get their passion and desire as well.” Trust “Access to another person’s life is only given as trust increases. We build trust through connection extending favor and vulnerability.” “We trust people whom we believe hear us understand us and are able to empathize with our realities.” Action “Action is possible when you can help someone make ‘the shift’ moving from the head to the heart and from the heart to the hands and feet.” “The seeds of action are most firmly rooted in a person’s heart.”

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Simple Advice • Build relationships at every opportunity. The results could be endless. • Allow time for good ideas to emerge. • It is not change people fear it is loss. • Meaningful communication is critical. No amount of e-mail faxes text messages can equal the value of face-to- face meetings. 77

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1928 - 2014

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Additional Resources Websites • Compilation: www.lichtenwalner.net/servantleader • Greenleaf Center: www.greenleaf.org • Spears Center: www.spearscenter.org • Consulting / Development: www.JamesHunter.com Books • Servant Leader Greenleaf 1977 • The Servant Hunter 1998 • The Servant Leader Autry 2001 • Practicing Servant Leadership Spears Lawrence 2004 • World’s Most Powerful Leadership Principle Hunter 2004 Recommended texts… †

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References Autry James A. The Servant Leader: How to Build a Creative Team Develop Great Morale And Improve Bottom-Line Performance. Three Rivers Press New York NY 2001. Avolio B. J. Walumbwa F. O. Weber T. J. 2009. Leadership: Current theories research and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology 60 421-449. Barbuto Jr J. E. Wheeler D. W. 2006. Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group Organization Management 313 300-326. Chen C.-Y. Chen C.-H. Li C.-I. 2013. The influence of leader’s spiritual values of servant leadership on employee motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-Being. Journal of Religion and Health 522 418-438. DeGraaf Don Tilley Colin Neal Larry Servant-Leadership Characteristics in Organizational Life. Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership. Westfield Indiana. 2001. Ehrhart M. 2004. Leadership and procedural justice climate citizenship behavior as antecedents of unit-level organizational. Personnel Psychology 57 61-94. Greenleaf Robert K. Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power Greatness. Paulist Press Mawah NJ. 1977 1991 2002. Hansel T. Holy Sweat. Word. Dallas TX. 1987. Hunter James C. The World’s Most Powerful Leadership Principle: How to Become a Servant Leader. Crown Business New York NY. 2004. Liden R. C. Wayne S. J. Zhao H. Henderson D. 2008. Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The Leadership Quarterly 192 161-177. Liden R. C. Wayne S. J. Liao C. Meuser J. D. 2014. Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal 575 1434-1452. Peter G. Northouse Leadership: Theory and Practice Seventh Edition. SAGE Publications Inc. © 2016 Panaccio A. Henderson D. J. Liden R. C. Wayne S. J. Cao X. 2015. Toward an understanding of when and why servant leadership accounts for employee extra-role behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology 304 657-675. Spears Larry C. Lawrence Michelle et al Practicing Servant Leadership: Succeeding Through Trust Bravery And Forgiveness. Jossey-Bass San Fransisco CA . 2004 Spears Larry C. Diary of Alpha Kappa Psi article: Servant-Leadership. Gary L. Epperson CAE. Spring 2008. Van Dierendonck D. 2011. Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management 374 1228-1261. Publications referenced paraphrased or extracted from include the following:

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