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Even the most successful companies must constantly reinvent themselves. --Bill Gates Chairman and Chief Software Architect MicrosoftThe Business World Today: The Business World Today Constant change! Technology Society Environment Competition DiversityOrganization: Organization A systematic grouping of people brought together for some specific purposeWhat Three Characteristics Do All Organizations Have in Common?: People – It takes people to make decisions and to perform the activities which turn goals into reality Systemic Structure – division of labor that defines the roles of the members in the organization, creates rules and regulations Purpose - Typically expressed in terms of goals and objectives What Three Characteristics Do All Organizations Have in Common?What is Management?: What is Management? The process of deciding how best to use a business’s resources to produce good or provide services Employees Equipment MoneyManagement: Management The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people Efficiency – doing a task right, refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs Effectiveness – doing the right task; Translates into goal attainmentThe Organizational Pyramid: The Organizational PyramidLevels of Management: Levels of Management Senior management Establishes the goal/objectives of the business Decides how to use the company’s resources Not involved in the day-to-day problems Set the direction the company will follow Chairperson of the company’s board of directors, CEO, COO, senior vice presidentsLevels of Management: Levels of Management Middle management Responsible for meeting the goals that senior management sets Sets goals for specific areas of the business Decides which employees in each area must do to meet goals Department heads, district sales managersLevels of Management: Levels of Management S upervisory management Make sure the day-to-day operations of the business run smoothly Responsible for the people who physically produce the company's products or services Forepersons, crew leaders, store managersThe Management Process: The Management Process Three ways to examine how management works : Tasks performed Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling Roles played (set of behaviors associated with a particular job) Interpersonal, information-based, decision-making Skills needed Conceptual, human relations, technicalFunctions of Management: Functions of Managemen tThe Management Process: The Management Process Planning Decides company goals and the actions to meet them CEO sets a goal of increasing sales by 10% in the next year by developing a new software programThe Management Process: The Management Process Organizing Groups related activities together and assigns employees to perform them A manager sets up a team of employees to restock an aisle in a supermarketThe Management Process: The Management Process Staffing Decides how many and what kind of people a business needs to meet its goals and then recruits, selects, and trains the right people A restaurant manager interviews and trains serversThe Management Process: The Management Process Leading Provides guidance employees need to perform their tasks Keeping the lines of communication open Holding regular staff meetingsThe Management Process: The Management Process Controlling Measures how the business performs to ensure that financial goals are being met Analyzing accounting records Make changes if financial standards not being metRelative Importance of Types of Skills for Different Levels of Managers: Relative Importance of Types of Skills for Different Levels of ManagersPrinciples of Management: Principles of Management A principle is a basic truth or law Managers often use certain rules when deciding how to run their business Most management principles are developed through observation and deductionPrinciples of Management: Principles of Management Observe that employees in 15 companies work more efficiently when their supervisors threat them well Deduce/conclude that a pleasant work environment contributes to productivity Conclusion becomes a management principle Deduction is the process of drawing a general conclusion from specific examplesPrinciples of Management: Principles of Management Management principles are best viewed as guides to action rather than rigid laws If a principle does not apply to a specific situation, an experienced manager will not use it Important to recognize when a principle shouldn’t be followed Being able to change and adapt is an important management skillPrinciples of Management: Principles of Management Do all employees need to arrive at work at the same time?Principles of Management: Do people who work in offices need to dress in a certain way? Principles of ManagementOld Paradigm: Old Paradigm Then (50 years ago) Overseer Disciplinarian Enforcer of policy “Do as I say, not as I do” mentalityChanging ...: Changing ... Now Trainer Advisor Mentor Facilitator CoachSupervisor As Change Agents: Supervisor As Change Agents To cut costs and increase productivity Continuous quality improvement Introduction of work teams Flexible work hours Accident prevention and stress reduction programsSupervisor As Fewer Middle Managers: Supervisor As Fewer Middle Managers Organizations are thinning middle management Significantly expanded responsibilitiesSupervisor As A Trainer: Supervisor As A Trainer Training important more than ever and supervisors carry the primary burden of designing and training Many new employees are poorly prepared for work or have language or communication deficiencies The use of technology requires more trainingSupervisors Go By Many Titles: Supervisors Go By Many Titles Assistant manager Department head Head coach Team leader Shift leader/captain ForemanKey Supervisory Tasks: Key Supervisory Tasks Motivate Provide feedback Resolve performance problems Blend employee goals with work requirements Improve communications and keep employees informed Responsible for employee training and skillsWhere Do Supervisors Come From?: Where Do Supervisors Come From? From Within Source of the majority of new supervisors Operatives who know how things are done and know the organization Abilities are known to management Acts as an employee motivator Know the operation Understand the organization Know the employees Have prior experience on which to make decisions Employee motivatorWhere Do Supervisors Come From?: From Colleges – both 2 and 4 year With additional organizational training can readily step into frontline management Where Do Supervisors Come From?Is the Transition to Supervisor Difficult?: Is the Transition to Supervisor Difficult? Initial view of manager as “boss” is incorrect Unprepared for the demands and ambiguities of the job Technical expertise is no longer the primary determinant of success and failure Supervisor’s job comes with administration duties The “people” challengeIs the Transition to Supervisor Difficult?: Is the Transition to Supervisor Difficult? NOW – Key communicator Paperwork Accountability Stuck between operatives and managers Usually promoted from peer group Left out of the decision-making process Must have a much more personal relationship with employeesPowerPoint Presentation: Types of Supervisory SkillsPowerPoint Presentation: Technical skills – the specialized knowledge and expertise used to carry out particular techniques or procedures.PowerPoint Presentation: Human relation skills – the ability to work effectively with other people .PowerPoint Presentation: Conceptual skills – the ability to see the relation of the parts to the whole and to one another .PowerPoint Presentation: Decision-making skills – the ability to analyze information and reach good decisions .PowerPoint Presentation: Knowledge skills – the ability to utilize various communication technology to manage and distribute continuous streams of data.Responsibilities: Responsibilities Carry out the duties assigned to them by higher-level managers Give managers timely and accurate information for planning Keep managers informed about the department’s performance Cooperate with co-workers in other departmentsAccountability: Accountability Accountability refers to the practice of imposing penalties for failing to adequately carry out responsibilities, and it usually includes giving rewards for meeting responsibilities. 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