Developing Mentoring Program

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Developing Mentoring Program:

Developing Mentoring Program www.humanikaconsulting.com D E V E L O P I N G P R O G R A M www.humanikaconsulting.com

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“ In Greek mythology (The Odyssey), Mentor was a man who befriended and advised Telemachus, the son of Odysseus . The goddess Athena would assume Mentor’s form when she visited Telemachus . ”

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A mentor is an individual with expertise who can help develop the career of a mentee. The mentor guides, trains, advises, and promotes the career development of the mentee. A mentor is an experienced guide, trustworthy advisor, a personal champion, a constructive critic, a motivator, a listener . A mentor wants the protégé to succeed!

Mentoring schemes can support ::

Mentoring schemes can support : S pecifically identified groups · D evelopment and workbased L earning programmes · I ndividuals or organisations through change or transition . · I mproved effectiveness of organisations and individuals .

Facilitated mentoring schemes may be introduced for a variety of reasons:

Facilitated mentoring schemes may be introduced for a variety of reasons I dentify potential more effectively I nduct new staff more quickly I mprove the retention of staff E ncourage and support high flyers E ncourage and support ethnic minority and disadvantaged groups E ncourage and support women to break through the glass ceiling S upport selfdevelopment and workbased E ncourage and support mentoring in community initiatives such as mentoring capable but disadvantaged S upport organisational change E ncourage personal development H elp individuals cope with transitions such as moving into a new job or role. (Jones & Jowett, 1997)

Mentoring Functions in Career:

Mentoring Functions in Career Help ing the mentee learn the ropes and prepare for career advancement. Coaching Challenging assignments Exposure and visibility Protection

Mentoring Functions in Psychososial:

Mentoring Functions in Psychososial Help ing the mentee develop a sense of competence and clarity of identity. Role-Modeling Acceptance and confirmation Counseling Friendship

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T he B enefits of M entoring

Values And Principles of Mentoring:

Values And Principles of Mentoring Recognising that people are okay (Hay, 1995) Realising that people can change and want to grow (Hay, 1995) Understanding how people learn Recognising individual differences Empowering through personal and professional development Encouraging capability Developing competence Encouraging collaboration not competition Encouraging scholarship and a sense of enquiry Searching for new ideas, theories and knowledge Equal opportunities in the organisation Reflecting on past experiences as a key to understanding Looking forward ( Reflexion ) and developing the ability to transfer learning and apply it in new situations Realising that we can create our own meaning of mentoring (Hay, 1995 & Jowett, Shaw & Tarbitt , 1997)

Stages of Mentoring:

Stages of Mentoring

Initiation Stage:

Initiation Stage Initiation is the phase where the mentoring relationship is established. Mentors and protégés introduce themselves, define goals, and begin sharing information. Two-way learning takes place in this phase. It is a shorter phase of the mentoring relationship.

Mentoring Checklists:

Mentoring Checklists Why have I become a mentor/mentee? What do I offer/ what do I want? What significant issues might arise? What do I feel strongly about? Which are the areas where I prefer my mentor/mentee to ‘match’ me; over which I am neutral; which I would like us to be different? What about issues of trust and respect? What are my own psychological/ personal/ thinking/ working styles? How do they affect the way I interact with others? What mentoring skills do I want my mentor to have? How much time will we have? Where will we meet? What mutual contacts are we likely to have? How might that affect the mentoring? What is my attitude towards self development ? Who has been mentor to me. What did I gain? Who else is involved in this process ( eg senior management, Human Resource Division, mentee’s manager)? Hay (1995)

Cultivation Stage:

Cultivation Stage Cultivation begins as the mentor provides advice and guidance to the protégé . The protégé will develop skills and gain a broader understanding of his or her role, career path, and professional development. The protégé works toward a goal and the mentor supports the protégé in their efforts.

Example Review Questions (1):

Example Review Questions (1)

Example Review Questions (2):

Example Review Questions (2)

Example Review Questions (3):

Example Review Questions (3)

Separation Stages:

Separation Stages Goals will be reached. Knowledge will be shared. Priorities and availability may change. The time will come for the mentoring relationship to come to an end. It may be initiated by either the mentor or the protégé, or it could be by mutual decision. During this phase, open and honest communication is critical and will help the individuals move through this transition stage. Two-way communication and learning that was established during the initiation phase can help support the two-way communication that should occur during this phase.

Reasons for ending include:

Reasons for ending include S cheme/project/placement completes its term O ne or other partner moves away to another job or role I nappropriate matching P ersonality clash/lack of bonding T he relationship is not fulfilling the needs particularly of the mentee P artners do not fulfil their commitment to turn up for meetings

Redifinition Stage:

Redifinition Stage The mentor and protégé roles will not exist indefinitely. Two professionals will become more like peers. This last phase of the mentoring relationship aims to redefine the roles of the individuals into a new, professional relationship that may continue indefinitely.

Learning Process:

Learning Process 4 stages in the learning cycle (Lewis, 1996) T he Activist who is comfortable at the experience stage and enjoys getting involved in new experiences and doing things T he Reflector who likes to take time and think things through from various angles before acting T he Theorist who assimilates , integrates, synthesises information into rational schemes, systems , theories, principles, logic or concepts for explanation . T he Pragmatist who values new ideas, wants to see if they work in practice and enjoys problem solving

Mentoring skills:

Mentoring skills

A Mentor is ...:

A Mentor is ... teacher/ educator translator and decoder confidante organisational culture and values counsellor interpreter motivator time manager facilitator · planner coach problemsolver friend catalyst adviser diagnostician critic energiser guide expert sounding board taskmaster sponsor devil’s advocate learning consultant protector process consultant role model target setter

Good Mentoring: Set Specific, Realistic Goals and Deliverables:

Good Mentoring: Set Specific, Realistic Goals and Deliverables Many agencies manage by milestones Setting specific goals, deliverables, and promotes concrete activity Achieving modest, short term goals promotes sense of progress Frequent review of goals and timeline is a valuable reality check; allows for adjustments and re-focusing

Mentoring Scheme (Conway, 1994):

Mentoring Scheme (Conway, 1994)

Building Contract:

Building Contract Contracting can be viewed as having four components (Hay, 1995): T he procedural contract T he professional contract T he personal contract T he psychological contract

Mentee Needs:

Mentee Needs Guidance in a general or specific professional area Series of questions or issues Broad career development Early career development Ethical and moral guidance Assistance in navigating professional seings , institutions, structures, and politics Professional identity development guidance

Advice to Potential Mentees:

Advice to Potential Mentees Get mentors! Internal mentors help with current organizational issues. External mentors help with larger career issues and future organizational moves . One mentor is unlikely to fulfill all developmental needs Be proactive Adopt a learning orientation Set SMART developmental goals Specific Measurable Attainable

Role of Mentees :

Role of Mentees Seek counsel and advice, not a supervisor who directs actions. Be aware of potential pitfalls: Overbearing mentor , mentor exploitation of mentee’s work . Be sensitive to the difference between asking for help/advice from your mentor and demanding favors from your mentor. Synthesize lessons learned from all mentors – become your own person. Recognize dynamics of relationship.

Advice to Potential Mentors:

Advice to Potential Mentors Recognize that mentee may be uncomfortable asking for help – break ice by sharing some of your career experiences Stay in your zone of expertise/experience Be clear that mentee sets pace of relationship Advise, do not manage Extend mentee’s developmental network – suggest additional mentors to address unique needs

Roles and Characteristics of Mentors:

Roles and Characteristics of Mentors Acts as an experienced role model Provides acceptance, encouragement, and moral support Provides wisdom, advice, counsel, coaching Acts as a sponsor in professional organizations, supports networking efforts Assists with the navigation of professional se􀄴 ings , institutions, structures, and politics Facilitates professional development Challenges and encourages appropriately to facilitate growth Provides nourishment, caring, and protection Integrates professional support with other areas such as faith, family, and community Accepts assistance from mentee in mentor’s professional responsibilities within appropriate limits Enjoys the opportunity to pass on their wisdom and knowledge and collaboration with early career professionals

Mentor Attributes:

Mentor Attributes Positive Available Intelligent Challenging Innovative Invites to Field Personable Renowned Enjoys Mentoring Sets clear goals Has necessary lab resources Attends conferences with students Negative Unavailable Poor Feedback Insensitive Arrogant Disorganized Not funded Fails to offer constructive criticism Expects too much Overworked Overly protective Willing to spend extra time with students Offers opportunities for community outreach Similar political views

Good Mentor:

Good Mentor

Relationship Types:

Relationship Types Established career and early career Professor to student Professional to professional Peer mentoring (same developmental level with specific experiential differences) Friendship Parent-like features can be present Task-focused versus relationship-based Daily contact versus less frequent contact Short- versus long-term mentorships Collegial collaborations

Advice for New Mentors:

Advice for New Mentors Be a good listener Build a relationship Don’t abuse your authority Foster independence Provide introductions Be constructive Find your own mentors

Four Potential Dysfunctions in Mentoring Relationships:

Four Potential Dysfunctions in Mentoring Relationships Psychosocial Career-related Bad intent toward other Negative Relations (bullies, enemies) Sabotage (revenge, silent treatment, career damage) Good intent toward other Difficulty (conflict, binds) Spoiling (betrayal, regret, mentor off fast track) Scandura, T. A. (1998)

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Emerson writes: “(A mentor) is a mind that startles us, that elevates our feelings by sharing our views of life .”

Differences Between Coaching & Mentoring:

Differences Between Coaching & Mentoring Coaching Mentoring Goals To correct To support and guide Initiative The coach The mentee Focus Immediate situation Long-term Roles Heavy on telling Heavy on listening

TRADITIONAL MENTORING VS DEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCE:

TRADITIONAL MENTORING VS DEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCE Traditional The mentor is more influential and hierarchically senior The mentor gives, the protégé receives, the organization benefits Developmental Alliance The mentor is more experienced in issues relevant to mentee’s learning needs A process of mutual growth

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Traditional The mentor actively champions and promotes the cause of the protégé The mentor gives the protégé the benefit of their wisdom Developmental Alliance The mentor helps the mentee to things for themselves The mentor helps the mentee develop their own wisdom TRADITIONAL MENTORING VS DEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCE

TRADITIONAL MENTORING VS DEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCE:

Traditional The mentor steers the protégé through the acquisition of experience and resources The primary objective is career success Developmental Alliance The mentor helps the mentee towards personal insights from which they can steer their own development The primary objective is personal development TRADITIONAL MENTORING VS DEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCE

TRADITIONAL MENTORING VS DEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCE:

Traditional Good advice is central to the success of the relationship Social exchange emphasizes loyalty Developmental Alliance Good questions are central to the success of the relationship The social exchange emphasis learning TRADITIONAL MENTORING VS DEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCE

Formal Mentoring Programs:

Formal Mentoring Programs Program length is specified Purpose of program is to help early career psychologists establish and develop their careers Program participation is voluntary . Matching of mentors and mentees uses input from participants : Interest areas in psychology Demographics Experiences

Formal Mentoring Programs:

Formal Mentoring Programs Advocate developmental networks Monitoring program: Relationships should end as soon as they become dysfunctional Evaluation of program Little research on formal mentoring programs. Available research supports informal mentoring as a stronger relationship with better outcomes. No current research examining quality of formal mentoring programs and their outcomes. ( Wanberg , Welsh, & Hezlett , 2003)

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  Developer is org. superior to the mentee Developer is org. peer to the mentee Developer is org. subordinae to the mentee Demo-graphic match Profess-ional/ Interest area match Geograph-ical location match Career-related: Coaching mentee with strategies for meeting job expectations + + - - - 0 + 0 0 Career-related: Challenging mentee with stretch assignments/goals - 0 + Career-related: Enhancing the mentee’s exposure and visibility + + + - + + + Career-related: Protection of mentee from potentially negative contacts with other org. members. + + + + + Career-related: Sponsorship of mentee’s career development + - - 0 0 0 Psychosocial: Role Modeling + + + + - + + + + + Psychosocial: Counseling with work relationships + + + Psychosocial: Counseling on developing work/career-related competencies + 0 + - 0 0 0 Psychosocial: Counseling with work-family balance 0 + 0 + Psychosocial: General acceptance and confirmation + + + + + + Matrix of Types of Developers and Development Functions in Organizational Socialization (Chao, in press) “+” = likely function for this type of developer, “0” = possible function for this type of developer, “-” = unlikely function for this type of developer

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Meetings • Regular meeting schedule • Set agenda for meetings • Know what is expected of you • Actively inform what you are doing • Listen actively • Ask questions

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• Ways to make it work: – Clear roles and expectations – Good relationship among mentors – Complementary experience • Potential problems – Unclear expectations – Disagreement or competition – Inefficient/overlap Multiple Mentors: Necessity

Distance Mentoring:

Distance Mentoring How to use e-mail Use e-mail to set up meetings (face-to-face or phone), clarify plans/goals, pose non-time urgent questions, review plans, maintain contact. Don’t use e-mail to give critical or complex feedback, provide impressions of other’s behavior, provide impressions of third parties, exchange sensitive information .

Distance Mentoring:

Distance Mentoring Communication Challenges Listen for nonverbal cues (e.g., pregnant pauses, voice tone, tempo, volume) Push for specific information, clarify meanings Summarize agreements

POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREAS:

POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREAS M ismatch of mentor/mentee Mismatch of expectations Reluctant mentor/mentee O ver zealous mentee R elationship not valued in the organisation Gender mismatch C ultural mismatch R ace mismatch E motional involvement Broken confidentiality C onflicting roles manager/ assessor/mentor I mpact on others O bstructions from/conflicts of others, eg mentees line manager, colleagues, partners P arameters /boundaries not agreed in advance

Other Problems (NBS, 1999):

Other Problems (NBS, 1999) P ersonal incompatibility of mentor and mentee F rustration of time constraints/workload I mpact of shift pattern and difficulty with access between mentor/mentee D ifficulty in sustaining sufficient numbers of mentors D anger that mentorship becomes a paper exercise Lack of cooperation from colleagues

Problems With Cross-Gender Mentoring:

Problems With Cross-Gender Mentoring Most common form of business mentoring: male mentor and male mentee. Other forms: Male mentor and female mentee (most common) Female mentor and male mentee Female mentor and female mentee (rare)

Advice for Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Mentoring:

Advice for Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Mentoring Keep relationship professional Be sensitive to other people’s reactions and potential rumors Avoid perception of personal relationship Meet in public venues Transparency of relationship

After the Program Ends:

After the Program Ends Many relationships come to a natural end when a mentee learns enough to be independent from specific mentors. New mentoring relationships with others may be more beneficial than continuing an exhausted relationship . Program end may not mean the end of the relationship – informal mentoring can continue if both parties agree. Pilot program will assess how mentoring met needs of both mentees and mentors.

The APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct : five general principles and 10 standards (APA, 2002).:

The APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct : five general principles and 10 standards (APA, 2002). Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Fidelity and Responsibility Integrity Justice Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity

Advantages of Mentoring:

Advantages of Mentoring Advantages for the mentee: Career advancement Salary Organizational/professional identification Advantages for the mentor: Career enhancement “Passing the torch to a new generation” Learning from mentee – new technologies, new developments, important features of next generation

Disadvantages of Mentoring:

Disadvantages of Mentoring Disadvantages for the mentee: Overdependence on the mentor Micro-management from the mentor Negative halo from mentor who fails Disadvantages for the mentor: Mentee dependence on mentor Time, energy commitment to mentee Negative halo from mentee who fails

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