Julius Casear : Julius Casear by Carla and Jonah Slide 2: Born on July 13, 100 B.C.E
Born into a family of patricians
Father’s name was Gaius Caesar and mother’s name was Aurelia Cotta Caesar was educated in Rome and Rhodes.A philosopher named Cicero said Caesar was “one of the most cultured and literate Romans.” : Caesar was educated in Rome and Rhodes.A philosopher named Cicero said Caesar was “one of the most cultured and literate Romans.” Slide 4: Caesar rose to power during the civil wars in Rome over who should hold power.
He commanded a professional army, and with another general, Pompey, dominated Roman politics.
In 59 B.C.E, he led his army onto new conquests, and in 50 B.C.E, Caesar controlled Gaul, present day France. Caesar wrote about his conquestof Gaul in a book calledCommentarii de Bello Gallico. : Caesar wrote about his conquestof Gaul in a book calledCommentarii de Bello Gallico. (Translates to Commentaries
About the Gallic War) Slide 6: Over time, Pompey began to realize the power Julius Caesar was gaining, and persuaded the senate to force Caesar to abandon his army and come back to Rome.
Refusing to comply, he led his army to Rome through the Rubicon River, which was considered an act of war.
In 49 B.C.E, Caesar started another civil war. Slide 7: Modern day, mouth of the Rubicon River.
The river was a minor river even in Roman times. Slide 8: Caesar took power after defeated Pompey, his army, and the Senate. He became the unopposed ruler of the Roman world.
After, he went around the Mediterranean and fought surrounding lands.
When he came back, he forced the Senate into naming him the dictator of Rome.
They proclaimed him dictator perpetuo, or dictator for life. Slide 9: Caesar’s conquest of Gaul made him popular with the people.
His victories helped gain Rome territories and wealth.
He lost only 2 battles. Slide 10: Caesar passed many reforms to address the problems in Rome.
He gave land to the poor, started public projects to create jobs, granted citizenship to more foreign people, and introduced a new calendar based on Egyptian knowledge.
This calendar became what we use today after minor alterations.
Later called the Julian calendar and used in western Europe for over 1,600 years.
These reforms continued from 48 B.C.E. to 44 B.C.E. Slide 11: The Roman Senate feared losing what power it had. They believed that Julius Caesar was going to claim the title as king of Rome.
On March 15, 44 B.C.E (Ides of March), a group of senators called Caesar to the Senate, to see a fake petition.
As he was reading it, Tillius Cimber, a senator attempted to stab Caesar’s throat, but Caesar grabbed his arm.
The other conspirators came to Tillius’s aid and proceeded to stab Caesar 23 times. Slide 12: Morte di Giulio Cesare (Death of Caesar) by Vincenzo Camuccini Aftermath of Caesar’s Death : Aftermath of Caesar’s Death Many civil wars sprung up after Caesar’s death.
Mark Antony and Caesar’s grand-nephew Octavian hunted down the his killers.
Antony and Octavian fought for the position as ruler after Caesar’s murderers were executed.
Octavian defeated Mark Antony in 31 B.C.E.B.C.E.